Spanish IV Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

                    

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61. Object Pronouns

Subject Direct Indirect Disjunctive (after prepositions)
yo I me me me to me me
tú / vos you te you te to you ti / vos you
él he/it lo him/it le (se) to him/it él, ello, sí him/it
ella she/it la her/it le (se) to her/it ella, ello, sí her/it
Usted you lo, la you le (se) to you Usted, sí you
nosotros / nosotras we nos us nos to us nosotros / nosotras us
vosotros / vosotras you os you os to you vosotros / vosotras you
Ustedes you los, las you les (se) to you Ustedes, sí you
ellos / ellas they los, las them les (se) to them ellos / ellas, sí them
  1. An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb, except if is used in an affirmative command, with an infinitive or gerund.  Then it is attached to the verb as one word.  me Ud. el libro.  Give me the book.

  2. When you have more than one pronoun, the indirect comes before the direct.  If both pronouns begin with the letter l, then the first one (the indirect pronoun) is changed to se. I gave it to him is se lo di not le lo di.

  3. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form, an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word.

  4. For clearness or emphasis, the prepositional form of a plus a disjunctive pronoun may be used.  Nos envió a Ud.  He sent us to you. Me lo dio a mí. He gave it to me.

  5. Notice that the direct and indirect object forms for vos are both te.

  6. Ello is also used as a neuter disjunctive pronoun meaning it.   can mean yourself, himself, herself, yourselves or themselves.  When con combines with mí, ti or , the words become conmigo, contigo and consigo.  The forms of mismo (-a, -os, -as) can be added to these pronouns to express -self.

  7. In Spain, le and les are used as direct object pronouns in place of lo and los, but only when they refer to people, not things. This is called leísmo and its use corresponds to the same geographic region where vosotros is used in Spain (in northern and central regions.)


62. Parts of the Body

 

ankle el tobillo hip la cadera
arm el brazo intestine el intestino
artery la arteria jaw la quijada
back la espalda kidney el riñón
beard la barba knee la rodilla
belly el vientre leg la pierna
bladder la vejiga lip el labio
blood la sangre liver el hígado
body el cuerpo lung el pulmón
bone el hueso moustache el bigote
brain el cerebro mouth la boca
breast el seno muscle el músculo
breath el aliento nail la uña
calf la pantorrilla neck el cuello
cheek la mejilla nerve el nervio
chest el pecho pain el dolor
chin la barba / la barbilla nose la nariz
coccyx el coxis palm la palma
cold el resfriado pulse el pulso
complexion la tez rib la costilla
cough la tos shin la espinilla
disease la enfermedad shoulder el hombro
ear la oreja skeleton el esqueleto
elbow el codo skin la piel
eye el ojo skull el cráneo
eyebrow la ceja sole la planta
eyelid el párpado spine la espina dorsal
face la cara stomach el estómago
fever la fiebre tear la lágrima
finger el dedo temple la sien
fist el puño thigh el muslo
flesh la carne throat la garganta
foot el pie thumb el pulgar
forehead la frente toe el dedo del pie
gum la encía tongue la lengua
hair el cabello / el pelo tooth el diente
hand la mano vein la vena
head la cabeza wound le herida
health la salud waist la cintura
heart el corazón wrist la muñeca
heel el talón    

To express pain, use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part.

Me duele la cabeza.  My head hurts.
Le duelen los pies.  His feet hurt.


63. Asking Questions

For yes/no questions, you can simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. For questions beginning with a question word, the word order is essentially the same as for statements. In writing, you will need to add the upside down question mark to the beginning of the question.

¿Estas bien? Are you ok?
¿Por que no ha llegado?
Why hasn't he arrived?

Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement to create tag questions.  These translate to many phrases in English depending on the verb used, such as Isn't it?  Aren't you?  Don't you?  Didn't he?  Isn't she? etc.


64. To Give and to Bring

dar - to give  
  present: give(s)
(yo) doy
(tú / vos) das
(él / ella / usted) da
(nosotros / nosotras) damos
(vosotros / vosotras ) dais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

dan
   
traer - to bring  
  present: bring(s)
(yo) traigo
(tú / vos) traes
(él / ella / usted) trae
(nosotros / nosotras) traemos
(vosotros / vosotras ) traéis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

traen

 


65. Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent.)  This pronoun may be the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.  Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns.

Que (who, whom, that, which) refers to persons or things, except after a preposition, when it refers to things only.  El que (and its forms - la que, los que, las que) and el cual (and its forms - la cual, los cuales, las cuales) may replace que or quien.  These pronouns are used to avoid ambiguity when there are two antecedents, and with prepositions.

La casa en que vivo es pequeña.  The house in which I live is small.
He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive.  I visited the city near which he lives.

Quien (-es) (who, whom) is often used in place of el que and its forms, when it means one who, those who, etc.

Lo que and lo cual (that which, what) refer to the whole sentence.

Cuyo (-a, -os, -as) is a possessive adjective (whose) and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed, which is always the word that follows it.


67. To Hear, to Smell and to See

oír - to hear oler - to smell ver - to see
oigo
oyes
oye
oímos
oís
oyen
huelo
hueles
huele
olemos
oléis
huelen
veo
ves
ve
vemos
veis
ven


68. Animals

 

animal el animal lark la alomdra
ant la hormiga lion el león
antelope el antílope lizard el lagarto
antenna la antena lobster (spiny) la langosta
antler el asta louse el piojo
badger el tejón mackerel la caballa
bat el murciélago mole el topo
beak el pico monkey el mono
bear el oso mosquito el mosquito
bee la abeja moth la polilla
beetle el escarabajo mouse el ratón
bird el pájaro mule el mulo
blackbird el mirlo mussel el mejillón
bull el toro nest el nido
butterfly la mariposa nightingale el ruiseñor
calf el ternero octopus el pulpo
carp la carpa ostrich el avestruz
cat el gato owl el buho
caterpillar la oruga ox el buey
cheetah el guepardo oyster la ostra
chicken el pollo parrot el loro
chimpanzee el chimpancé partridge la perdiz
claw la zarpa paw la pata
cockroach la cucaracha penguin el pingüino
cod el bacalao pig el cerdo
cocoon el capullo pigeon el pichón
cow la vaca pike el sollo
crab el cangrejo pony el potro
crayfish el cangrejo rabbit el conejo
crocodile el cocodrilo raccoon el mapache
crow el cuervo rat la rata
deer el ciervo rooster el gallo
dog el perro salmon el salmón
donkey el burro scale la escama
dragonfly la libélula scorpion el escorpión
duck el pato sea gull la gaviota
eagle el águila (f) seahorse el caballito de mar
eel el anguila seal la foca
egg el huevo shark el tiburón
elephant el elefante sheep la oveja
feather la pluma shrimp la gamba
fin la aleta skin la piel
fish el pez slug la babosa
flea la pulga snail el caracol
fly la mosca snake la serpiente / la culebra
fox el zorro sole el lenguado
frog la rana sparrow el gorrión
fur el pelo spider la araña
gill la branquia squid el calamar
giraffe la jirafa squirrel la ardilla
goat la cabra starfish la estrella de mar
goose el ganso stork la cigüeña
gorilla el gorila swallow la golondrina
grasshopper el saltamontes swan el cisne
hamster la marmota tadpole el renacuajo
hare la liebre tail la cola
hedgehog el erizo tiger el tigre
hen la gallina toad el sapo
heron la garza trout la trucha
herring el arenque tuna el atún
hoof la pezuña turkey el pavo
horn el cuerno turtle la tortuga
horse el caballo wasp la avispa
hummingbird el colibri weasel la comadreja
iguana la iguana whale la ballena
insect el insecto wing el ala (f)
jellyfish la medusa wolf el lobo
kitten el gatito worm el gusano
ladybug la catarina zebra la cebra
lamb el cordero    


69. Suffixes

 

Suffixes may be attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs.  Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes.  The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a).  They express size, affection, admiration, appreciation or pity.  The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something.  To indicate where something is made or sold, add -ería.  When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives, they express abstract nouns.  When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter), it indicates the performer of the action.

 


70. Subjunctive Mood

 

The subjunctive is not used very often in English, but it is very common and important in Spanish. Some imperative / command forms are actually the subjunctive, so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. Start with the first person singular yo conjugation in the present indicative tense, remove the final -o and add these endings:

Present Subjunctive

  -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs
(yo) -e
-a
(tú / vos) -es -as
(él / ella / usted) -e -a
(nosotros / nosotras) -emos -amos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -éis -áis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-en -an

(Notice that the vowels are switched: -ar verbs use -e and -er/-ir verbs use -a in the present subjunctive)

Usually when there is an irregular spelling change in the present indicative of a verb, that form will be used for the stem of all of the subjunctive forms. (Review #29 from Spanish I) However, verbs than end in -erir, -ertir, or -entir use two different irregular spellings in the present subjunctive:

mentir in present subjunctive
(yo) mienta
(tú / vos) mientas
(él / ella / usted) mienta
(nosotros / nosotras) mintamos
(vosotros / vosotras ) mintáis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

mientan

 

The imperfect subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. Remove the -on ending, leaving you with either -ar and -ier at the end of the stem, and add these endings:

Imperfect Subjunctive

all verbs
(yo) -a
(tú / vos) -as
(él / ella / usted) -a
(nosotros / nosotras) -amos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -ais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-an

 

An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. Instead of hablaramos, it is habláramos; instead of comieramos, it is comiéramos, etc. Note that there is another way to form the imperfect subjunctive (a different set of endings), but the endings given above are used more often. [For the other form of the imperfect subjunctive, replace -ra- in all conjugations above with -se-] A future subjunctive also exists though it is rarely used nowadays. You may come across it in writing, however. Its conjugations only differ from the imperfect subjunctive above in that a is replaced by e.

You must always pay attention to the correct usage of verb tenses. When the verb of the main clause is in the present or future, then the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the present subjunctive. But if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense, the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the imperfect subjunctive.

The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. Similarly, the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.

Present perfect subjunctive
Past perfect subjunctive
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
+ past participle hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
+ past participle

 


71. Common & Irregular Subjunctive Conjugations

Only six verbs (marked in grey below) do not follow the pattern described above when starting with the yo conjugation of the indicative. Nevertheless, these verbs are still somewhat easy to remember even if they don't follow the pattern because the imperative form will help you determine the stem to use for the subjunctive conjugation.

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be

des
demos
deis
den
diga
digas
diga
digamos
digáis
digan
esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
haga
hagas
haga
hagamos
hagáis
hagan
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pueda
puedas
pueda
podamos
podáis
puedan
ponga
pongas
ponga
pongamos
pongáis
pongan
quiera
quieras
quiera
queramos
queráis
quieran
saber - to know
salir - to go out
ser - to be
sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan
salga
salgas
salga
salgamos
salgáis
salgan
sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean
tener - to have
traer - to bring
venir - to come
tenga
tengas
tenga
tengamos
tengáis
tengan
traiga
traigas
traiga
traigamos
traigáis
traigan
venga
vengas
venga
vengamos
vengáis
vengan

 

A few verbs are irregular in the imperfect subjunctive as well:

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be
diera
dieras
diera
diéramos
dierais
dieran
dijera
dijeras
dijera
dijéramos
dijerais
dijeran
estuviera
estuvieras
estuviera
estuviéramos
estuvierais
estuvieran
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
hiciera
hicieras
hiciera
hiciéramos
hicierais
hicieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pudiera
pudieras
pudiera
pudiéramos
pudierais
pudieran
pusiera
pusieras
pusiera
pusiéramos
pusierais
pusieran
quisiera
quisieras
quisiera
quisiéramos
quisierais
quisieran
saber - to know
ser - to be
tener - to have
supiera
supieras
supiera
supiéramos
supierais
supieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
tuviera
tuvieras
tuviera
tuviéramos
tuvierais
tuvieran
traer - to bring
venir - to come
trajera
trajeras
trajera
trajéramos
trajerais
trajeran
viniera
vinieras
viniera
viniéramos
vinierais
vinieran
   


72. Uses of the Subjunctive

 

The main uses of the subjunctive include (generally, que will follow the verb):

1. After the verbs querer and desear (to want) when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject).

Yo quisiera que estuvieras aquí. I wish that you were here.

2. When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something.

3. After verbs of emotion or command, such as esperar (to hope), sentir (to be sorry), temer (to fear), alegrarse (to be glad), mandar (to order), rogar (to request), when there is a change of subject.

4. After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty (negative of creer), as well as after quizás, tal vez and acaso (maybe) to reinforce the idea of doubt.

5. After most impersonal expressions, such as es posible que / puede que (it's possible), es importante que (it's important), es necesario que / hace falta (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb.

6. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite.

7. After certain conjunctions, such as para que (in order that), sin que (without), and antes que (before).

8. After time conjunctions, such as cuando (when), en cuanto (as soon as), hasta que (until), when future is implied.

Cuando sea mayor, iré a España. When I am older, I will go to Spain.

9. After que and ojalá que (hopefully, if only, I wish) in expressions of wishes or desires:

Que aproveche! Have a good meal!
Ojalá que nos ayude!
Hopefully he will help us!
Ojalá pudiera hacer eso. I wish I could do that. (note that que is often omitted after ojalá)

10. After como si, the imperfect subjunctive must be used:

Es como si fuera mi padre. It's as if he were my father.

11. For hypothetical or contrary-to-fact conditions, the imperfect subjunctive or past perfect subjunctive must be used in the if clause (in English, the preterite or past perfect is used instead), while the main clause is in the conditional or past conditional, just like in English.

Si tuviera tiempo, iría. If I had time, I would go.
Si hubiera tenido tiempo, habría ido. If I had had time, I would have gone.


73. Adverbs

 

Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.  However, two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much).

Adjective Adverb
correcto
fácil
claro
absoluto
rápido
correctamente
fácilmente
claramente
absolutamente
rápidamente
correctly
easily
clearly
absolutely
rapidly

 

Lo + adverb + que expresses how, while lo más + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated:  as ... as ...

lo bien que  how well
lo más pronto posible  as soon as possible


74. Passive Voice

In passive sentences, the subject receives the action of the verb.  In active sentences, the subject does the action.  However, the meaning of both sentences is the same.  The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle.  Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence.  The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical; and by de if mental.  The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.  If you use estar instead of ser, the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence.

Active El viento destruye la casa. The wind destroys the house.
Passive La casa fue destruida por el viento. The house was destroyed by the wind.
Predicate Adjective Cuando la vi, la casa estaba destruida. When I saw it, the house was destroyed.


El niño fue castigado por su padre.
 The boy was punished by his father.
Rosa es amada por todos.  Rose is loved by everyone.


75. Uses of the Infinitive

 

The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el, al, a preposition, ver or oír.

El correr es un buen ejercicio. Running is good exercise.
Partió sin hablar. He left without speaking.
Oigo cantar a Maria. I hear Maria singing.

 


76. Shopping

 

department store el almacén shop/store la tienda
shopping mall el centro comercial (open-air) market el mercado (al aire libre)
belt el cinturón (fixed) price el precio (fijo)
glasses las gafas sale la rebaja
gloves los guantes to bargain regatear
sunglasses los lentes de sol to spend money gastar

 

In Latin America, a cell phone is el celular. In Spain, it is el móvil.


77. Post Office and Bank

post office el correo bank el banco
envelope el sobre (traveler's) check el cheque (de viajero)
mailbox el buzón to cash (a check) cobrar
mail carrier el cartero to save (money) ahorrar
stamps las estampillas to deposit depositar
package el paquete account la cuenta


79. Infinitives followed by Prepositions

The following verbs require a, de, en or con before an infinitive:

Verb + a + an infinitive Verb + de + an infinitive
acostumbrarse a
aprender a
atreverse a
ayudar a
comenzar a
convidar a
decidirse a
dedicarse a
empezar a
enseñar a
invitar a
ir a
negarse a
persuadir a
principiar a
rehusar a
resignarse a
resistirse a
resolverse a
venir a
volver a
to become used to
to learn to
to dare to
to help
to begin to
to invite to
to decide to
to devote oneself to
to begin to
to teach to
to invite
to go to
to refuse to
to persuade to
to begin to
to refuse to
to resign oneself to
to resist
to resolve to
to come to
to return to
acabar de
acordarse de
alegrarse de
aprovecharse de
arrepentirse de
cansarse de
cesar de
dejar de
encargarse de
gozar de
jactarse de
olvidarse de
tratar de








to have just
to remember
to be glad to
to profit by
to repent
to tire of
to cease
to stop
to take charge of
to take pleasure in
to boast of
to forget to
to try to







Verb + en + an infinitive
Verb + con + an infinitive
consentir en
consistir en
divertirse en
empeñarse en
esforzarse en
insistir en
ocuparse en
pensar en
persistir en
tardar en
to consent to
to consist
to amuse oneself
to insist on
to endeavor to
to insist on
to busy oneself
to think of
to persist in
to delay in
contar con
contentarse con
soñar con







to count on
to content oneself with
to dream of







80. Office / School Supplies

pencil el lápiz dictionary el diccionario
eraser la goma tape (audio) la cinta
pen la pluma map el mapa
ink la tinta newspaper el periódico
paper el papel novel la novela
letter la carta backpack la mochila
notebook el cuaderno stapler la grapadora
book el libro scissors unas tijeras

 

La tarea is used in Latin America, while el deber is used in Spain. The singular refers to an assignment and the plural is homework.

 



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