Spanish V Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

                    

I am currently updating the tutorials with more vocabulary and regional variations, so the mp3s may not match exactly with what is written.


81. Parts of a Car & Gas Station

car
garage
tank
gasoline
oil
air
grease
tire
spare tire
wheel
steering wheel
brake
speed
slow
danger
stop
go
service station
el coche
el garage
el tanque
la gasolina
el aceite
el aire
la grasa
la llanta
llanta picada
la rueda
el volante
el freno
la velocidad
despacio
peligro
alto
siga, adelante
la estación de servicio


82. Travelling & Vacation

passport el pasaporte airport el aeropuerto
customs la aduana parking lot el aparcamiento
arrival la llegada bus stop la parada
departure la salida traffic jam los atascos
(round-trip) ticket el pasaje (de ida y vuelta) map el mapa
luggage el equipaje countryside el campo
single/double room la habitación individual/doble mountain la montaña
train (bus) station la estación de tren (de autobuses) beach la playa
subway la estación de metro paths los caminos
to take a trip hacer un viaje vacation las vacaciones
to go on vacation ir de vacaciones to drive conducir
to pack hacer las maletas to visit visitar
to travel viajar to walk pasearse
to fly volar to get lost perderse


83. Cosmetics / Toiletries

shampoo el champú brush el cepillo
soap el jabón comb el peine
makeup el maquillaje toothpaste la pasta de dientes
shaving cream la crema de afeitar toothbrush el cepillo de dientes
lotion la loción towel la toalla
nail polish el esmalte para las uñas electric razor la maquinilla de afeitar


84. Other Perfect Tenses

 

Beside the present and past perfect tenses, there are also the preterite, future and conditional perfect tenses. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle.

The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle, and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time, such as así que, luego que, tan pronto como (as soon as); cuando (when); después (de) que (after); and hasta que (until).

The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability, referring to the present.

The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability, referring to the past.

 


85. Durations of Time

 

Ago : hace + a period of time
Se fue hace quince días. He left fifteen days ago.

Since / For : desde hace + a period of time (careful with verb tenses here: present tense in Spanish, present perfect or present perfect continuous in English)
No vienes a verme desde hace un mes. You haven't come to see me for a month.

In : dentro de + a period of time (time at which something will happen)
Te llamo dentro de media hora. I'll call you in a half hour.

 


86. Telephone

 

Hello Bueno (Mexico) / Diga (Spain) / Hola (Argentina) / Aló telephone book la guía telefónica
Hello (reply) Oiga yellow pages las páginas amarillas
This is... Soy... to transfer someone poner con alguien
phone card una tarjeta telefónica to call telefonear
phone booth una cabina to pick up descolgar
call una llamada to hang up colgar
ringtone el timbre del teléfono to leave a message dejar un recado
dialtone el tono de marcar to be very talkative hablar por los codos
wrong number un número equivocado to dial a number marcar un número
busy signal la señal de ocupado    

 


87. Exclamations

 

Exclamatory phrases, which express what a or how, begin with qué, cuánto, and cómo. Qué can be followed by a noun or an adjective. Sometimes tan or más are also used with the adjective to emphasize a defect or a quality. ¡Qué mujer! What a woman! ¡Qué familia tan unida! What a united family!

Cuánto expresses quantity, and agrees in gender and number with the adjective that follows. It can also be followed by a verb, in which case there is no agreement. Furthermore, lo que can replace cuánto when a verb follows. ¡Cuánta comida! How much food! / There's a lot of food! ¡Cuánto comes! How you eat! / You eat a lot!

Cómo expresses the manner in which something is done. It can only be followed by a verb. ¡Cómo baila! How he dances! / He dances well!


88. Colloquial Expressions

 

la pandilla group of friends ¡qué pasada! that's awesome!
el colega / el socio friend ¡qué rollo! it's boring!
el profe teacher ¡chulo! ¡chula! great!
el cole middle school ser un lince to be very clever
un(a) chaval(a) guy/girl llevarse un chasco to be disappointed
un tío guy estar hasta la gorra to be fed up
un ligue flirt ligar to flirt
un empollón hard-worker estar hecho papilla to be sad
un cabeza de chorlito scatterbrain estar hecho polvo to be tired
un cabeza cuadrada stubborn estar mal del coco to be crazy
un cara de mala leche mean look/face estar harto to be fed up

 


89. Aspects of Action

 

To express an action that is planned (going to happen): ir a + infinitive. Voy a acostarme. I'm going to go to bed.

To express an action that is just about to happen: estar a punto de + infinitive or estar para + infinitive. El avión está para aterrizar. The plane is about to land.

To express an action that repeats: volver a + infinitive. Vuelve a escribir su nombre. You write your name again.

To express an action that has just happened: acabar de + infinitive. Acabo de llegar. I just arrived.

 


90. Verbs of Feelings

Several verbs in Spanish that express feelings (pleasure, pain, etc.) have different word order than in English. These verbs have the same construction as gustar (#35): Indirect object + verb + subject. Me, te, le, nos, os, les are the indirect object pronouns. The verb is conjugated in third person singular or plural because it agrees with the subject, not the indirect object.

 

gustar to like dar asco to hate
apetecer to feel like dar miedo to scare
encantar to adore dar lástima to trouble
dar ganas to feel like doler to hurt

 

Te apetece salir. You feel like going out.
Le duelen los dientes. His teeth hurt.
Les da miedo la película. The film scares them.

You can also add a mí, a ti, a él, a ella, a usted, a nosotros/-as, a vosotros/-as, a ellos, a ellas, or a ustedes before the indirect object for emphasis.

A mí me gusta el fútbol. Me, I like soccer.



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