Free Spanish I Tutorial: Basic Spanish Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

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Thanks to Renzo for the mp3s! If you'd like to download the mp3s, use the DownThemAll add-on for Firefox to download all the mp3s at once instead of right-clicking on each link. Recordings done by native speakers of Spanish from Peru and Spain.

If you're interested in buying books to supplement your Spanish studies, I've recommended some books from Amazon and there is a Spanish Interlinear book with literal English translations under the Spanish text. If you'd like a guide to help with motivation and confidence in learning and speaking Spanish, check out Why Spanish is Easy.

Need more Spanish? Try the Spanish courses at Udemy, the audio and video lessons at, and the authentic videos with subtitles and English translations at Yabla's LoMásTV and FluentU

I am updating the tutorials with more vocabulary and regional variations (and moving some sections around), so some of the mp3s may not match exactly with what is written.

1. Basic Spanish Phrases

If you'd like to study these phrases (and their pronunciations) individually, please go to Basic Spanish Phrases.


¡Buenos días! 
bway-nohs dee-ahs 
Hello! / Good morning!
¡Buenas tardes! 
bway-nahs tard-ays 
Good afternoon!
¡Buenas noches! 
bway-nahs noh-chays 
Good evening! / Good night!
¡Hola! / ¡Chao!
oh-lah / chow
Hi! / Bye!
Good bye.
Por favor. 
por fah-bor 
Hasta la vista / Hasta luego. 
ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go 
See you / See you later.
Hasta pronto. 
ah-stah prohn-toh 
See you soon.
Hasta mañana. 
ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah 
See you tomorrow.
(Muchas) Gracias. 
(moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs 
Thank you (very much).
De nada.
day nah-dah
You're welcome.
Lo siento
loh see-ehn-toh
I'm sorry
Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe
kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehr-dohn / dees-kool-peh
Excuse me / Pardon me
Let's go!
¿Cómo está usted? 
koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted 
How are you? (formal)
¿Cómo estás? 
koh-moh ay-stahs 
How are you? (informal)
¿Qué tal? 
kay tahl 
How's it going?
Bien / Muy bien 
bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn 
Good / Very good
Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos 
mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs 
Bad / Very bad / OK
Sí / No
see / noh
Yes / No
¿Cómo se llama usted? 
koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted 
What is your name? (formal)
¿Cómo te llamas? 
koh-moh tay yah-mahs 
What is your name? (informal)
Me llamo...  / Mi nombre es...
may yah-moh  / mee nohm-breh ess
My name is...
Mucho gusto. / Encantado.
moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahn-tah-doh
Nice to meet you.
Same here. / Same to you.
Señor / Señora / Señorita 
sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah 
Mister / Mrs. / Miss
¿De dónde es usted? 
day dohn-day ehs oo-sted 
Where are you from? (formal)
¿De dónde eres? 
day dohn-day eh-rehs 
Where are you from? (informal)
Yo soy de... 
yoh soy day 
I'm from...
¿Cuántos años tiene usted? 
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted 
How old are you? (formal)
¿Cuántos años tienes? 
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays 
How old are you? (informal)
Yo tengo _____ años. 
yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs 
I am _____ years old.
¿Habla usted español?
ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol
Do you speak Spanish? (formal)
¿Hablas inglés?
ah-blahs een-glehs
Do you speak English? (informal)
(No) Hablo...
noh ah-bloh
I (don't) speak...
¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes?
ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyen-dehs
Do you understand? (formal / informal)
(No) Entiendo.
noh ehn-tyen-doh
I (don't) understand.
Yo (no lo) sé.
yoh noh loh seh
I (don't) know.
¿Puede ayudarme?
pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh
Can you help me? (formal)
Claro / Claro que sí
klah-roh / klah-roh keh see
Sure / Of course
What? Pardon me?
¿Dónde está / Dónde están... ?
dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh eh-stahn
Where is ... / Where are ... ?
Aquí / Ahí
ah-kee / ah-ee
Here / There
Hay / Había...
eye / ah-bee-ah
There is / are... / There was / were...
¿Cómo se dice ____ en español?
koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en eh-spahn-yol
How do you say ____ in Spanish?
¿Qué es esto?
keh ehs ehs-toh
What is that?
¿Qué te pasa?
keh teh pah-sah
What's the matter (with you)?
No importa.
noh eem-por-tah
It doesn't matter.
¿Qué pasa?
keh pah-sah
What's happening?
Sin novedad.
seen noh-veh-dahd
Nothing much.
No tengo ninguna idea.
noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah ee-deh-ah
I have no idea.
¡Buena idea!
bweh-nah ee-deh-ah
Good idea!
Go ahead!
Estoy cansado / enfermo.
eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehr-moh
I'm tired / sick.
Tengo hambre / sed.
tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed
I'm hungry / thirsty.
Tengo calor / frío.
tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh
I'm hot / cold.
Estoy aburrido.
eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh
I'm bored.
No me importa.
noh meh eem-por-tah
I don't care.
No se preocupe.
noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh
Don't worry
Está bien.
ehs-tah bee-ehn
That's alright. / It's ok.
Me olvidé.
meh ohl-vee-deh
I forgot.
Tengo que ir ahora.
tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah
I must go now.
Quizás / Depende.
kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh
Maybe / It depends.
Todavía no.
toh-dah-vee-ah noh
Not yet.
¡Qué chistoso!
keh chees-toh-soh
How funny!
¡Que le vaya bien!
keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn
Have a nice day!
¡Nos vemos!
nohs veh-mos
We'll see you!
Bless you!
¡Buena suerte!
bweh-nah swehr-teh
Good luck!
Te toca a ti.
teh toh-kah ah tee
It's your turn. (informal)
Shut up!
Te amo. 
tay ah-moh 
I love you. (informal and singular)


  1. Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Spanish (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.)

  2. Encantado, cansado, enfermo, and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman, then the final o changes to a: encantada, cansada, enferma, and aburrida

  3. In Spain, as well as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Spanish language is called castellano instead of español.

  4. Por favor is often shortened to just porfa. Porfis can also be used (at least in Mexico) to mean pretty please.

  5. Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries, there are several regional dialects and accents so pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. This tutorial is mostly concerned with the standardized varieties that are spoken in Mexico and northern/central Spain, but will also include common variants from other countries and/or regions. (The southern region of Spain, Andalucía, and the Canary Islands, exhibit features that are closer to Latin American Spanish.)

2. Pronunciation

Spanish Letter English Sound
a ah as in father
e ay as in bait
i ee as in feet
o oh as in coat
u oo as in moon
ai / all / ay as in eye
ca, co, cu, c + cons. k as in kite
ce, ci s as in see (most varieties of Spanish) / th as in thief (northern/central Spain)
d similar to th as in thigh when between 2 vowels
ga, go, gue, gué, gui g as in go
gua, güe, güi, guo gw
ge, gi hard h (similar to last sound in loch or Bach)
h (silent - not pronounced in Spanish)
j hard h (similar to last sound in loch or Bach)
ll y as in yes (most varieties)
lli as in million (northern/central Spain)
zh as in measure (Argentina)
ñ ny as in canyon
qu k as in kite
r similar to a soft d when between 2 vowels; sometimes weakened to l
rr r with a roll of the tongue
s s as in see but often weakened to h or not pronounced when at end of syllable (most of Latin America, southern Spain/Canary Islands)
v b at beginning of word, very soft b between 2 vowels
z s as in see but often weakened to h or not pronounced when at end of syllable (most of Latin America, southern Spain/Canary Islands) / th as in thief (northern/central Spain)


  1. The five vowels in Spanish are all pure vowels: [a], [e], [i], [o], [u] Be sure that you do not pronounce a diphthong as we do in English (the extra yuh or wuh sound at the end). Other consonants not listed are pronounced as in English, i.e. m as in man, y as in yes, etc.

  2. The two major differences in pronunciation between southern Spain/Latin America and northern/central Spain are called seseo and yeísmo. Seseo refers to the pronunciation of both s and z as s, while yeísmo refers to the pronunciation of ll as y - both are features of southern Spain/Canary Islands/Latin America Spanish.

  3. One feature of Spanish pronunciation that is often missing from textbooks is the loss of final -s. When -s is at the end of a syllable, it often weakens to -h or it is not pronounced at all. This occurs in southern Spain, the Canary Islands, and throughout Latin America, with the exception of some parts of Mexico and the Andean areas of South America. Final -r can also weaken to -l or even -y in Cuban Spanish. In fact, many consonants are much weaker and softer in Spanish than in English, as noted above with d, r, and v.


Stress: Just as in English, Spanish stresses a certain syllable in a word. If a word ends in a consonant, except s or n, the stress is on the last syllable. If a word ends in a vowel, or s or n, the stress is on the second-to-last syllable. For words that do no follow these rules, an accent is written over the vowel so that you will know to stress that syllable, as in el pájaro (bird).

3. Alphabet Youtube

a ah j hoh-tah r air-ay
b bay k kah rr airr-ay
c say l ay-lay s ay-say
ch chay ll ay-yay t tay
d day m ay-may u oo
e ay n ay-nay v bay chee-kah
f ay-fay ñ ayn-yay w bay doh-blay
g hey o oh x ah-kees
h ah-chay p pay y ee-gree-ay-gah
i ee q koo z say-tah


The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch, ll or rr to be separate letters in dictionaries, but they are still separate letters in the alphabet. In Spain oo-bay is used for v, but in Latin America most varieties just use bay and an adjective, such as chica (Mexico and Peru) or corta (Argentina and Chile). Spain also uses oo-bay doh-blay or doh-blay oo-bay for w.

4.  Articles & Demonstratives

Masc. Singular Fem. Singular Masc. Plural Fem. Plural
the el  la  the los  las
a, an un una some unos unas
this este esta these estos estas
that ese esa those esos esas
that aquel aquella those aquellos aquellas


El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.  Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine, with a few exceptions: la mano (hand), la foto (photo). Words that end in -a are generally feminine, with a few exceptions: el mapa (map), el problema (problem). Other feminine words end in -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud.

Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.  Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.  Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.  They can be used in general and abstract ways.

Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun; if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns, which are used before a verb, add an accent on all of the first e's: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas, ése, ésa, ésos, ésas, aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas.

5. Subject Pronouns

singular plural
first person yo yoh I nosotros
second person
you (informal) vosotros
you (informal)
third person él
he / it
she / it
you (formal)
they (masculine)
they (feminine)
you (informal / formal)


  1. The various pronouns meaning you can be tricky to use correctly in Spanish. The informal forms are used to show familiarity with other people, while the formal forms indicate social distance. There are many factors that determine the familiarity or formality, such as gender, age, location, social class, etc. In general, informal you is used with family members, friends, children, animals, etc. while formal you is reserved for those to whom you wish to show respect. These rules are not steadfast though, and there is a lot of variation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. For example, usted is used among family members in Colombia, whereas most other Spanish speakers would use or vos. It is best simply to listen to which pronoun is used in the variety of Spanish that you are most interested in learning to figure out when to use each one.

  2. The use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, either in addition to or in place of , is called voseo. Old Spanish used this pronoun in addition to , but it became somewhat stigmatized when the standardized language of Spain stopped using it. Various regions of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela use both and vos, while Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay (known together as the Río de la Plata region) and most of Central America use vos in place of . Although voseo rarely appears in Spanish textbooks, it is used in some form by a majority (about two-thirds) of the Spanish-speaking population.

  3. Because every noun in Spanish has a gender, there are two ways to express it. If the noun is masculine, use él, which also means he. If the noun is feminine, use ella, which also means she.

  4. Vosotros is the plural form of in northern and central Spain only, for informal you. Ustedes is the plural form of usted for formal you. Since vosotros is not used in the rest of the Spanish-speaking countries, Ustedes is both informal and formal plural you in these countries.

  5. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. or Vd. (from the phrase vuestra merced). Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. or Vds.  

  6. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as does ellas. If there is a group of people that is mixed (both male and female), use the masculine forms: nosotros, vosotros and ellos.

  7. Subject pronouns are often only used for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity when the verb conjugation is the same for different people (such as él and usted.)

6. To Be & to Have Youtube


ser - to be
  present   preterite imperfect   future  
(yo) soy I am fui era I was seré I will be
(tú / vos) eres / sos you are
you were serás
you will be
(él / ella)
he / she / it is
you are
he / she / it was
you were
he / she / it will be
you will be
(nosotros / -as) somos we are fuimos éramos we were seremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) sois you are fuisteis erais you were seréis you will be
(ellos / ellas)

they are
you are
they were
you were
they will be
you will be


estar - to be
  present   preterite imperfect   future  
(yo) estoy I am estuve estaba I was estaré I will be
(tú / vos) estás you are estuviste estabas you were estarás
you will be
(él / ella)
he / she / it is
you are
he / she / it was
you were
he / she / it will be
you will be
(nosotros / -as) estamos we are estuvimos estábamos we were estaremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) estáis you are estuvisteis estabais you were estaréis you will be
(ellos / ellas)

they are
you are
they were
you were
they will be
you will be


tener - to have
  present   preterite imperfect   future  
(yo) tengo I have tuve tenía I had tendré I will have
(tú / vos) tienes / tenés you have
tuviste tenías
you had
you will have
(él / ella)
he / she / it has
you have
he / she / it had
you had
he / she / it will have
you will have
(nosotros / -as) tenemos we have tuvimos teníamos we had tendremos we will have
(vosotros / -as) tenéis you have tuvisteis teníais you had tendréis you will have
(ellos / ellas)

they have
you have
they had
you had
they will have
you will have


Highlighted forms are only used in northern/central Spain. You do not need to use the subject pronouns unless you want to emphasize the person, or to avoid ambiguity.

The conjugation for vos is usually only different from the conjugation in the present tense and the imperative (commands), though there can be differences in the preterite and subjunctive as well. Sometimes the present tense conjugation is identical to the tú conjugation (in which case, there will only be one form given in the conjugation charts). For the present tense conjugation of ser, in some regions of Chile, Colombia, and Cuba the vos conjugation is soi, whereas in some parts of Panama and Venezuela it is sois. A final -s may or may not be used for the vos conjugation in the preterite tense. There is a lot of variation in the vos conjugations, in addition to the use of the pronoun tú with a vos conjugation or the pronoun vos with a tú conjugation. Voseo is usually associated with Argentina but there are many more places in Latin America that use vos in some form so it is important to be aware of it.

The difference between the preterite and imperfect tenses will be explained in Spanish II. In general, the preterite expresses a completed action in the past while the imperfect expresses a repeated or continuing action in the past. For now, just learn the forms for recognition purposes.


Ser is used to identify or describe.  It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin.  Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.


Uses of Ser

Identify person/object
Inherent characteristics
or qualities
Telling time
Express ownership
Impersonal expressions
Passive voice
El edificio es un templo.
La casa es grande.
Carlos es pobre.
Es carpintero.
Son las tres.
Los libros son de Juan.
Es necesario.
El teléfono fue inventado por Bell.
The building is a temple.
The house is large.
Charles is poor.
He is a carpenter.
It's three o'clock.
The books are John's.
It is necessary.
The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar

Temporary condition/state
State of health
Form progressive tense
El libro está en la mesa.
La ventana está abierta.
Juan está enfermo.
Miguel está estudiando.
The book is on the table.
The window is open.
John is sick.
Michael is studying.


Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring, while estar aburrido means to be bored. Others include: ser bueno - to be nice, estar bueno - to be in good health; ser callado - to be discrete, estar callado - to be silent; ser moreno - to have brown hair, estar moreno - to be tan.


Many common expressions using the verb "be" in English use the verb "tener" in Spanish (but not all):

to be afraid tener miedo to be in a hurry tener prisa, estar de prisa
to be against estar en contra to be jealous tener celos
to be at fault tener la culpa to be lucky tener suerte
to be careful tener cuidado to be patient tener paciencia
to be cold tener frío to be sleepy tener sueño
to be curious ser curioso/a to be successful tener éxito
to be fed up estar harto/a to be thirsty tener sed
to be happy estar contento/a to be tired estar cansado/a
to be hot tener calor to be ___ years old tener ___ años
to be hungry tener hambre    

Tener is also used with the following expressions that use "have" in English:

No tengo ni idea. I have no idea.

¿Tienes un resfriado? Do you have a cold?

Tengo que irme. I have to go.

7. Question Words


what qué which cuál(es)
who quién(es) how much cuánto (-a)
how cómo how many cuántos (-as)
when cuándo whom a quién(es)
where dónde whose de quién(es)
why por qué

8. cardinal & ordinal Numbers


0 cero say-roh
1 uno oo-noh first primero
2 dos dohs second segundo
3 tres trays third tercero
4 cuatro kwah-troh fourth cuarto
5 cinco seen-koh fifth quinto
6 seis says sixth sexto
7 siete see-ay-tay seventh séptimo
8 ocho oh-choh eighth octavo
9 nueve new-ay-vay ninth noveno
10 diez dee-ays tenth décimo
11 once ohn-say eleventh undécimo
12 doce doh-say twelfth duodécimo
13 trece tray-say thirteenth décimo tercero
14 catorce kah-tor-say fourteenth décimo cuarto
15 quince keen-say fifteenth décimo quinto
16 diez y seis dee-ays ee says sixteenth décimo sexto
17 diez y siete dee-ays ee see-ay-tay seventeenth décimo séptimo
18 diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh eighteenth décimo octavo
19 diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay nineteenth décimo noveno
20 veinte bayn-tay twentieth vigésimo
21 veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh twenty-first vigésimo primero
22 veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs twenty-second vigésimo segundo
30 treinta trayn-tah thirtieth trigésimo
40 cuarenta kuar-ain-tah fortieth cuadragésimo
50 cincuenta seen-kuain-tah fiftieth quincuagésimo
60 sesenta say-sain-tah sixtieth sexagésimo
70 setenta say-tain-tah seventieth septuagésimo
80 ochenta oh-chain-tah eightieth octogésimo
90 noventa noh-bain-tah ninetieth nonagésimo
100 cien(to) see-ain-(toh) hundredth centésimo
1000 mil meel thousandth milésimo


If you are just saying 100, you use cien. If it's over 100, you use ciento. So 101 is ciento uno and 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. Also you can use dieciséis, diecisiete, dieciocho, and diecinueve for 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. Additionally, 21-29 can be written as one word (veintiuno, veintidós, veintitrés, etc.), but you need to use y for the rest of the numbers.

Primero and tercero drop the final -o when used directly before a noun.

9. Days of the Week


Monday lunes loo-nays
Tuesday martes mar-tays
Wednesday miércoles mee-air-coh-lays
Thursday jueves hway-bays
Friday viernes bee-air-nays
Saturday sábado sah-bah-doh
Sunday domingo doh-ming-oh
day el día dee-ah
week la semana say-mahn-ah
weekend el fin de semana feen day say-mahn-ah
today hoy oy
tonight esta noche es-tah noh-chay
last night anoche ah-noh-chay
yesterday ayer eye-yair
tomorrow mañana mahn-yahn-ah
my birthday mi cumpleaños mee coom-play-ahn-yohs
next próximo / próxima prok-see-moh / mah
last pasado / pasada pah-sah-doh / dah
day before yesterday anteayer ahn-teh-eye-yair
day after tomorrow pasado mañana pah-sah-doh mahn-yahn-ah
the following day el día siguiente dee-ah see-gwee-ehn-teh
the day before la víspera vees-peh-rah


Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. The definite article is not used after the verb ser, but at all other times it is required and there is slight change in meaning if it is singular or plural: el lunes = on Monday but los lunes = on Mondays

10. Months of the Year


January enero  ay-nair-oh   
February febrero  fay-bray-roh 
March marzo  mar-soh 
April abril ah-breel 
May mayo mi-oh
June junio hoo-nee-oh
July julio hoo-lee-oh
August agosto ah-gohs-toh
September septiembre sayp-tee-aim-bray
October octubre ohk-too-bray
November noviembre noh-bee-aim-bray
December diciembre dee-see-aim-bray
month el mes mais
first of [a month] el primero de [month] pree-mair-oh day _____
year el año ahn-yoh
decade la década deh-kah-dah
century el siglo see-gloh
millennium el milenio mee-leh-nee-oh


The preposition en is used with months: en abril = in April. Also notice that primero is used for the first of the month, but the rest of the days are referred to using the regular cardinal numbers: el primero de junio but el dos de julio. Months of the year are also all masculine and not capitalized in writing.

¿Cual es la fecha de hoy? What is today's date?
Hoy es el primero de agosto. Today is August 1st.

Recommended resource:

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11. Seasons


spring la primavera in spring en primavera
summer el verano in summer en verano
winter el invierno in winter en invierno
autumn el otoño in autumn en otoño

12. Directions


to the right a la derecha
to the left a la izquierda
straight ahead todo derecho

north el norte northeast el noreste
south el sur northwest el noroeste
east el este southeast el sureste
west el oeste southwest el suroeste

13. Colors & shapes


red rojo / roja circle el círculo 
pink rosado / rosada square el cuadrado
orange anaranjado / anaranjada rectangle el rectángulo
yellow amarillo / amarilla triangle el triángulo
green verde oval el óvalo
blue azul cube el cubo
light blue celeste sphere la esfera
purple morado / morada cylinder el cilindro
violet violeta cone el cono
brown marrón octagon el octágono
black negro / negra box la caja
gray gris pyramid la pirámide
white blanco / blanca    
golden dorado / dorada dark oscuro / oscura
silver plateado / plateada light claro / clara

All adjectives in Spanish are placed after the noun that they describe and they agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun. Notice that some colors do not change for gender (marrón) or number (gris). To change an adjective to the feminine form, you usually just change the final -o to -a. To make an adjective plural, simply add an -s.

a red house = una casa roja

14. Time


¿Qué hora es? What time is it?
Es la una. It's one.
Son las dos/tres/cuatro... It's two/three/four...
Es mediodía. It's noon.
Es medianoche. It's midnight.
Son las cinco y cinco. It's 5:05
Son las ocho y cuarto. It's 8:15
Son las diez menos cuarto. It's 9:45
Son cuarto para las diez. It's 9:45 (common in Mexico)
Son las nueve menos diez. It's 8:50
Son diez para las nueve. It's 8:50 (common in Mexico)
Son las tres y media / treinta. It's 3:30
de la mañana in the morning / AM
de la tarde in the afternoon / PM
de la noche in the evening / PM
en punto exactly / sharp
¿A qué hora? At what time?

15. Weather


¿Qué tiempo hace? What's the weather like?
Hace buen tiempo. The weather's nice.
Hace mal tiempo. The weather's bad.
Hace frío. It's cold.
Hace calor. It's hot.
Hace sol. It's sunny.
Hace viento. It's windy.
Hace fresco. It's chilly.
Está nublado. It's cloudy.
Hay niebla. It's foggy.
Hay neblina. It's misty.
Hay humedad. It's humid.
Hay granizo. It's hailing.
Llueve. It's raining.
Nieva. It's snowing.
Truena. It's thundering.
Llovizna. It's sprinkling.

16. Prepositions


a at, to al lado de beside, alongside of
con with alrededor de around
contra against cerca de near, close to
de of, from lejos de far from
en in, on delante de in front of
entre between, among debajo de below, under
hacia towards, about en frente de opposite
para for, in order to, by detrás de behind
por for, through, along, via encima de above, on top of
sobre on, over hasta till, until
sin without desde from, since


There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles.  A and el combine to form al, and de and el combine to form del.

Para often drops the second syllable in speech in the Caribbean and some Latin American countries. In informal writing, it is usually written as pa'

17. Family & Animals


family la familia cousin (m) el primo
parents los padres cousin (f) la prima
husband / spouse el marido / el esposo cousins los primos
wife / spouse la mujer / la esposa relatives los parientes
father / dad el padre / el papá stepfather el padastro
mother / mom la madre / la mamá stepmother la madrastra
son el hijo stepbrother el hermanastro
daughter la hija stepsister la hermanastra
children los hijos stepson el hijastro
brother el hermano stepdaughter la hijastra
sister la hermana godfather el padrino
brothers & sisters los hermanos godmother la madrina
only child (m) el hijo único baby el bebé
only child (f) la hija única teenager el adolescente
kid / boy el muchacho boy el niño
kid / girl la muchacha girl la niña
half-brother el medio hermano boys & girls los niños
half-sister la media hermana man el hombre
father-in-law el suegro woman la mujer
mother-in-law la suegra adult el adulto
brother-in-law el cuñado twins (m) los gemelos
sister-in-law la cuñada twins (f) las gemelas
son-in-law el yerno dog el perro
daughter-in-law la nuera cat el gato
grandfather el abuelo bird el pájaro
grandmother la abuela fish el pez
grandparents los abuelos gold fish la carpa dorada
grandson el nieto horse el caballo
granddaughter la nieta goat la cabra
grandchildren los nietos pig el cerdo
uncle el tío cow la vaca
aunt la tía rabbit el conejo
aunts & uncles los tíos turtle la tortuga
nephew el sobrino mouse el ratón
niece la sobrina deer el ciervo
nieces & nephews los sobrinos duck el pato


18. Possessive Adjectives


Initial Forms

Terminal Forms

    singular plural singular plural
yo my mi mis mío
tú / vos your tu tus tuyo
él / ella ; usted his / her / its ; your su sus suyo
nosotros / nosotras our nuestro
vosotros / vosotras your vuestro
ellos / ellas ; ustedes their ; your su sus suyo


Remember that vuestro forms are only used in northern/central Spain. Only nuestro and vuestro change for gender (masculine -o becomes feminine -a) in the initial forms.

Su and sus are the possessive adjective for only the usted form (singular you) in Latin America. For his, her, its, your (plural), and their, use de + the subject pronoun after the noun.

los libros de ellos  their books (literally: the books of they)

The terminal forms are placed after the noun, and the noun must be preceded by the definite article, except in direct address.  When used with the indefinite article, it corresponds to the English "of mine, of yours," etc.

el libro mío  my book
un amigo mío  a friend of mine

19. To Do / Make Listen to MP3


hacer - to do or make
  present: do(es), make(s) preterite: did, made imperfect: did, made future: will do, will make
(yo) hago hice hacía haré
(tú / vos) haces / hacés hiciste
(él / ella / usted) hace hizo hacía
(nosotros / nosotras) hacemos hicimos hacíamos haremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) hacéis hicisteis hacíais haréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

hacen hicieron hacían harán


¿Qué haces, hijo mío?  
What are you doing, my son?
¿Qué hace tu padre ?
What does your father do?

20. Formation of Plural Nouns

  1. If a singular noun ends in a vowel, just add -s to make it plural: la casa → las casas
  2. If a singular noun ends in a consonant, a vowel with an accent, or y, add -es to make it plural: el papel → los papeles
  3. Singular nouns that end in -z change the z to c and add -es to form the plural: la luz → las luces
  4. A few nouns that have an accent in the singular will lose it in the plural and vice versa: la canción → las canciones, el examen → los exámenes (but notice that there is no change for el lápiz → los lápices)

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