French & Italian Comparative Tutorial I: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously
 

 


Basic Phrases

English French Italian
Good day Bonjour Buongiorno
Good evening Bonsoir Buona sera
Good night (going to bed) Bonne nuit Buona notte
Hello / Hi / Bye Salut Ciao
Goodbye Au revoir Arrivederci
Thank you (very much) Merci (beaucoup) Grazie (mille)
You're welcome De rien Prego
Please S'il vous plaît Per favore
How are you? (formal) Comment allez-vous ? Come sta?
How are you? (informal) Ça va? Come stai?
I'm (really) good. Je vais (très) bien. Sto (abbastanza) bene.
I'm ok. Comme ci, comme ça. Cosí cosí.
Bad / not bad Mal / pas mal Male / Non c'è male
What's your name? (f) Comment vous appelez-vous ? Come si chiama?
What's your name? (in) Tu t'appelles comment ? Come ti chiami?
My name is… Je m'appelle… Mi chiamo…
Where are you from? (f) D'où venez-vous ? Di dov'è Lei?
Where are you from? (in) Tu es d'où ? Di dove sei?
I'm from…. Je suis de… Sono di…
How old are you? (f) Quel âge avez-vous ? Quanti anni ha?
How old are you? (in) Tu as quel âge ? Quanti anni hai?
I'm ___ years old. J'ai ___ ans. Ho ___ anni.
Yes / No Oui / Non Si / No
Do you speak … ? (f) Parlez-vous … Parla…
Do you speak … ? (inf) Est-ce que tu parles … Parli…
I (don't) speak… Je (ne) parle (pas)… (Non) parlo…
I (don't) know Je (ne) sais (pas). (Non) lo so.
Do you understand? (f) Comprenez-vous? Capisce?
Do you understand? (inf) Est-ce que tu comprends ? Capisci?
I (don't) understand Je (ne) comprends (pas). (Non) capisco.
Can you help me? (f) Pouvez-vous m'aider ? Può aiutarmi?
Can you help me? (inf) Est-ce que tu peux m'aider ? Puoi aiutarmi?
Of course. Bien sûr Certamente
I would like… Je voudrais… Vorrei…
Where is / are … ? Où est / sont… ? Dov'è / Dove sono… ?
Excuse me Excusez-moi Con permesso
Pardon me Pardonnez-moi Mi scusi
I'm sorry Je suis désolé(e). Mi dispiace
See you tomorrow A demain A domani
See you later / soon A tout à l'heure / A bientôt A più tardi / A presto
Mister / Misses / Miss Monsieur / Madame / Mademoiselle Signore / Signora / Signorina
Pleased to meet you. Enchanté(e). Piacere. / Molto lieto.
Pardon? Comment ? Come?
How do you say … ? Comment dit-on … ? Come se dice … ?
What's the matter? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? Cosa c'è?
What's happening? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? Che succede?
There is / are… Il y a… C'è / Ci sono…
What is it? Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça ? Che cosa è?
Right? N'est-ce pas ? Vero?
It doesn't matter. Ça ne fait rien. Non importa
I have no idea. Je n'ai aucune idée Non ho idea
I don't care. Ça m'est égal. Non m'importa
I'm tired / sick. Je suis fatigué(e) / malade. Sono stanco(-a) / malato(-a)
I'm hungry / thirsty. J'ai faim / soif. Ho fame / sete.
I'm cold / hot. J'ai froid / chaud. Ho freddo / caldo.
I'm bored. Je m'ennuie. Mi annoio.
I forgot. J'ai oublié. Ho dimenticato.
I have to go. Je dois y aller. Devo andare.
Welcome! Bienvenue Benvenuti
Let's go! Allons-y ! Andiamo!
Good luck! Bonne chance ! Buona fortuna!
Have fun! (inf) Amuse-toi ! Divertiti!
Bless you! A tes souhaits ! Salute!
Cheers! A la vôtre ! Cincin!
Pay attention! / Be careful! (f) Faites attention ! Fate attenzione!
Don't worry! (inf) Ne t'en fais pas ! Non ti preoccupare!
Shut up! (f / inf) Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! Sta zitto! / Stai zitto!
Congratulations! Félicitations ! Congratulazioni!
Happy New Year Bonne Année Buon Anno
Happy Easter Joyeuses Pâques Buona Pasqua
Merry Christmas Joyeux Noël Buon Natale
Happy Birthday Bon Anniversaire Buon Compleanno
I love you. (singular) Je t'aime Ti amo / Ti voglio bene
I miss you. (singular) Tu me manques Mi manchi

Adjectives in both languages must agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular and plural) with the nouns they describe. For example. if you are a man, you would use je suis fatigué in French and sono stanco in Italian for I am tired. If you are a woman, you would use je suis fatiguée in French and sono stanca in Italian. Vocabulary words are generally given in the masculine form, with the feminine ending in parentheses.(In French, you generally add -e to form the feminine; while in Italian, you change -o to -a). If there is only one form of an adjective given, then it is the same for masculine and feminine (such as malade in French).

There are two ways to say "you" in both languages, formally (f) or informally (inf). The formal you is the polite form and should be used with people you do not know or with people to whom you want to show respect. The informal you should be used with children and animals, and with close friends and family.


Pronunciation

 

The major difference in pronunciation between the two languages is that French has several silent letters, while every letter must be pronounced in Italian. In addition, French contains four distinctive nasal vowels that do not exist in Italian.

 

Vowels

Vowels in French are somewhat complex (12). Vowels in Italian are much simpler (7). Vowels that do not exist in English are highlighted.

French Vowels
Italian Vowels
English Pronunciation
[i] vie, midi, lit, riz [i] vita meet
[y] rue, jus, tissu, usine     ee rounded
[e] blé, nez, cahier, pied [e] vedi wait
[ø] jeu, yeux, queue, bleu     ay rounded
[ɛ] lait, aile, balai, reine [ɛ] era bet
[œ] sœur, œuf, fleur, beurre     eh rounded
[a] chat, ami, papa, salade [a] kane not
[ɑ] bas, âne, grâce, château     ah longer
[u] loup, cou, caillou, outil [u] uva boot
[o] eau, dos, escargot, hôtel [o] sole coat
[ɔ] sol, pomme, cloche, horloge [ɔ] modo law
[ə] fenêtre, genou, cheval, cerise     rut

I'm using the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the vowels and a rough phonetic transcription for those who do not know the IPA.

French has three front rounded vowels that do not exist in English, but you can learn to pronounce them correctly because their unrounded counterparts do exist in English. To pronounce [y], round your lips when saying [i]; to pronounce [ø], round your lips when saying [e]; and to pronounce [œ], round your lips when saying [ɛ]. The distinction between [a] and [ɑ] continues to disappear in modern French, so don't worry about trying to distinguish these two sounds.

Pronouncing Italian vowels is rather easy. The only problems arise when distinguishing the two e's and o's. If the vowel is stressed, then it is always closed [e] and [o]. If the vowel is not stressed, it is always open [ɛ] and [ɔ]. This can change according to regional dialects in Italy, of course, but this is the standard rule.

 

Nasal Vowels, Semi-Vowels/Consonants, & Diphthongs

The four nasal vowels are a distinctive feature of French. There are also three semi-vowels. In Italian, there are two semi-vowels, several diphthongs and a few triphthongs.

French nasal vowels
French semi-vowels
Italian semi-vowels
[] gant, banc, dent [w] oui, Louis [w] quando, uomo
[ɛ̃] pain, vin, linge [ɥ] lui, suisse [j] piano, ieri, piove
[œ̃] brun, lundi, parfum [j] oreille, Mireille    
[õ] rond, ongle, front        

The distinction between the two nasals [ɛ̃] and [œ̃] is disappearing in French. Italian semi-vowels are written ua, ue, uo, ui for [w] and ia, ie, io, iu for [j]. If another vowel precedes u or i, then it is a diphthong: ai, ei, oi, au, eu. The combination iu + another vowel creates a triphthong.

 

Consonants

French consonants

ex + vowel egz examen, exercice eg-zah-mawn, eg-zehr-sees
ex + consonant eks exceptionnel, expression ek-sehp-see-oh-nel, ek-spreh-see-ohn
ch (Latin origin) sh architecte, archives ar-shee-tekt, ar-sheev
ch (Greek origin) k orchestre, archéologie ohr-kehs-tr, ar-kay-oh-loh-zhee
ti + vowel (except é) see démocratie, nation day-moh-krah-see, nah-see-ohn

Italian consonant + vowel combinations

c + a, o, u, he, hi k amica, amico, amiche ah-mee-kah, ah-mee-koh, ah-mee-keh
c + ia, io, iu, e, i ch bacio, celebre, cinema bah-cho, cheh-leh-breh, chee-neh-mah
g + a, o, u, he, hi g gara, gusto, spaghetti gah-rah, goo-stoh, spah-geh-tee
g + ia, io, iu, e, i dj Giotto, gelato, magico djoh-toh, djeh-lah-toh, mah-djee-koh
sc + a, o, u, he, hi sk scala, scuola, scheda skah-lah, skoo-oh-la, skeh-dah
sc + ia, io, iu, e, i sh sciarpa, sciupato, scemo shar-pah, shoo-pah-toh, sheh-moh

In both languages, s is generally pronounced the same as in English, except when it is between two vowels, then it is pronounced like z. H is always silent.

Double consonants in Italian must be pronounced individually: il nonno (eel nohn-noh) is pronounced differently than il nono (eel noh-noh)

Liaison in French forces a preceding consonant to be pronounced before the following vowel of the next word. Normally, this consonant is silent, but it must be pronounced at the beginning of the next word: très (treh) and heureux (uh-ruh) become treh zuh-ruh when pronounced together. S and x are pronounced as z, d as t and f as v in liaisons.

 

Stress

In general, stress falls on the last syllable in French and the second-to-last syllable in Italian. If stress falls on the last syllable in Italian, the vowel is written with an accent mark (la città). However, it is also possible for the stress in Italian to fall on the third-to-last syllable (America, telefono) and even the fourth-to-last syllable (telefonano) in third person plural verb conjugations.


Alphabet

English French Italian
A ah ah
B bay bee
C say chee
D day dee
E uh eh
F eff eff-eh
G zhay zhee
H ahsh ahk-kah
I ee ee
J shee ee loon-gah
K kah kahp-pah
L ell ehl-eh
M emm ehm-eh
N enn ehn-eh
O oh oh
P pay pee
Q kew koo
R air ehr-reh
S ess ehs-seh
T tay teh
U ew oo
V vay voo
W doo-blah-vay dohp-pyah voo
X eeks eeks
Y ee-grek ee greh-kah
Z zed dzeh-tah

 


Numbers

English French Italian English French Italian
zero zéro zero      
one un uno first premier (ère) primo (a)
two deux due second deuxième secondo (a)
three trois tre third troisième terzo (a)
four quatre quattro fourth quatrième quarto (a)
five cinq cinque fifth cinquième quinto (a)
six six sei sixth sixième sesto (a)
seven sept sette seventh septième settimo (a)
eight huit otto eighth huitième ottavo (a)
nine neuf nove ninth neuvième nono (a)
ten dix dieci tenth dixième decimo (a)
eleven onze undici eleventh onzième undicesimo (a)
twelve douze dodici twelfth douzième dodicesimo (a)
thirteen treize tredici thirteenth treizième tredicesimo (a)
fourteen quatorze quattordici fourteenth quatorzième quattordicesimo (a)
fifteen quinze quindici fifteenth quinzième quindicesimo (a)
sixteen seize sedici sixteenth seizième sedicesimo (a)
seventeen dix-sept diciassette seventeenth dix-septième diciassettesimo (a)
eighteen dix-huit diciotto eighteenth dix-huitième diciottesimo (a)
nineteen dix-neuf diciannove nineteenth dix-neuvième diciannovesimo (a)
twenty vingt venti twentieth vingtième ventesimo (a)
twenty-one vingt et un ventuno twenty-first vingt et unième ventunesimo (a)
twenty-two vingt-deux ventidue twenty-second vingt-deuxième ventiduesimo (a)
twenty-three vingt-trois ventitre twenty-third vingt-troisième ventitreesimo (a)
thirty trente trenta twenty-fourth vingt-quatrième ventiquattresimo (a)
forty quarante quaranta twenty-fifth vingt-cinquième venticinquesimo (a)
fifty cinquante cinquanta      
sixty soixante sessanta one-half une moitié un mezzo
seventy soixante-dix settanta one-third un tiers un terzo
eighty quatre-vingts ottanta one-fourth un quart un quarto
ninety quatre-vingt-dix novanta      
hundred cent cento once une fois una volta
hundred one cent un centuno twice deux fois due volte
two hundred deux cents duecento three times trois fois tre volte
thousand mille mille      
million un million un milione

 

When writing numbers, switch the use of commas and periods. For example, 4.50 in English would be written as 4,50 in French and Italian. In French, cent has a plural form: cents, but mille is invariable (there is no plural form); while in Italian, cento is invariable and mille has a plural form: mila.

French telephone numbers are ten digits, beginning with zero, and the country code is 33 (Belgium: 32, Switzerland: 41, Canada: 1). Italian telephone numbers are between 8 and 11 digits, most beginning with zero, and the country code is 39.

 


Articles & Demonstratives

 

Definite and Indefinite Articles
Definite Article (the) French Italian Indefinite Article (a, an) French Italian
masculine singular le il masculine singular un un
begins with vowel l' l' begins with vowel un un
begins with s + cons.   lo begins with s + cons.   uno
masculine plural les i masculine plural des dei
plural of l' and lo   gli plural: di + gli   degli
           
feminine singular la la feminine singular une una
begins with vowel l' l' begins with vowel une un'
feminine plural les le feminine plural des delle

 

Articles are slightly more complicated in Italian. The rows in italics only concern Italian and not French. If a masculine Italian noun begins with s + consonant, z, gn, ps, x, or i + vowel, you must use lo as the definite article (instead of il). However, la is still used for all feminine Italian nouns that begin with those same letters. Only il changes to i in the plural, while l' and lo change to gli. Feminine articles are more simple: la and l' change to le in the plural. The plural indefinite article can be expressed as some in English, but it is not always used.

 

Demonstrative Adjectives
this / these + noun French Italian that / those + noun French Italian
masculine singular ce questo masculine singular ce quel
begins with vowel cet quest' begins with vowel cet quell'
begins with s + cons.   questo begins with s + cons.   quello
masculine plural ces questi masculine plural ces quei
plural of l' and lo   questi plural: di + gli   quegli
           
feminine singular cette questa feminine singular cette quella
begins with vowel cette quest' begins with vowel cette quell'
feminine plural ces queste feminine plural ces quelle

 

In French, ce, cet, and cette can be translated as this or that, while ces can be translated as these or those. If you would like to be precise, you can add -ci to the end of the noun to specify this/these (for what is close to you), and -là to the end of the noun to specify that/those (for what is further away from you). For example, cette chaise-ci means this chair while cette chaise-là means that chair. In Italian, two distinct forms exist to distinguish between what is close and what is far away: quest- for close, and quel- for far away.

In Italian, demonstrative adjectives (which precede nouns) and demonstrative pronouns (which take the place of nouns) have very similar forms. In French, the demonstrative pronouns have different forms. You can add -ci and -là to the French demonstrative pronouns to specify what is close (this/these) and what is far away (that/those): celui-ci means this one, while celui-là means that one.

 

Demonstrative Pronouns
this / these + verb French Italian that / those + verb French Italian
masculine singular celui questo masculine singular celui quello
masculine plural ceux questi masculine plural ceux quelli
           
feminine singular celle questa feminine singular celle quella
feminine plural celles queste feminine plural celles quelle

Nouns: Gender & Number

There are two genders of nouns in both languages, masculine and feminine, and two numbers, singular and plural. Adjectives agree in gender and number with nouns, so you must learn the gender with each noun in order to form grammatically correct phrases. Usually the last letter of the noun will tell you which gender it is.

Gender
In French, masculine singular nouns generally end with a consonant, - age or -ment. Feminine singular nouns generally end with -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -ance, -té, and -ette.

In Italian, masculine singular nouns generally end with -o or -ore. Feminine singular nouns generally end with -a or -zione. Nouns ending with -e and -ista can be either gender, so you must learn those individually. A few masculine nouns end with -a: il problema, il tema, il teorema, il poeta, il cinema, il programma; and a few feminine nouns end with -o: la mano, la radio, la foto, la moto.

In most cases, the gender of a noun is the same in French and Italian. But there are some cases in which the genders are reversed. (For example, names of cities and letters of the alphabet are masculine in French, but feminine in Italian.)

Masculine in French / Feminine in Italian
Feminine in French / Masculine in Italian
English French Italian English French Italian
air l'air l'aria affair, case l'affaire l'affare
art l'art l'arte tooth la dent il dente
calm le calme la calma oil l'huile l'olio
number/digit le chiffre la cifra limit la limite il limite
couple le couple la coppia sea la mer il mare
Sunday le dimanche la domenica method la méthode il metodo
summer l'été l'estate minute la minute il minuto
forehead le front la fronte panic la panique il panico
guide le guide la guida period la période il periodo
spring le printemps la primavera planet la planète il pianeta
sand le sable la sabbia second la seconde il secondo
evening le soir la sera attempt la tentative il tentativo

 

Number
In French, singular nouns generally add -s (unless the noun already ends in -s, -z, or -x, then they change nothing for the plural), though nouns ending in -au, -eau, and -eu add -x instead (or change -al/-ail to -aux) to form the plural. (Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau, détail, chandail all add -s) There are also seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou, genou, pou, joujou, hibou

French Irregular Plurals: l'œil - les yeux (eye-eyes); le ciel - les cieux (sky-skies); le jeune homme - les jeunes gens (young man-young men); and three nouns are masculine in the singular, but feminine in the plural: amour, délice, orgue

In Italian, singular nouns that end with -o or -e, whether masculine or feminine, change to -i in the plural. Feminine nouns change -a to -e in the plural. Monosyllabic nouns, nouns that end with an accented letter, with a consonant, and with -i do not change in the plural. Nouns ending in -ca, -go, -ca, and -ga add an -h before the plural ending (as a rule of pronunciation). Nouns that end with -io can either change to -ii in the plural (if the i of -io is stressed), or to -i (if the i of -io is not stressed).

Italian Irregular Plurals: l'uomo - gli uomini (man-men); il dio - gli dei (god-gods); il bue - i buoi (beef); il centinaio - le centinaia (century-centuries); il dito - le dita (finger-fingers); il riso - le risa (laughter); l'uovo - le uova (egg-eggs); l'ala - le ali (wing-wings); l'arma - le armi (weapon-weapons); la mano - le mani (hand-hands)


Personal Pronouns

Subject Pronouns
Direct Object Pronouns
Indirect Object Pronouns
Disjunctive Pronouns
English French Italian English French Italian English French Italian English French Italian
I je io me me mi me me mi me moi me
you (s, inf) tu tu you (s, inf) te ti you (s, inf) te ti you (s, inf) toi te
you (s, f) vous Lei you (s, f) vous La you (s, f) vous Le you (s, f) vous Lei
he / she il / elle lui / lei him / her le / la lo / la him / her lui gli / le him / her lui /elle lui / lei
one / we on si                  
we nous noi us nous ci us nous ci us nous noi
you (pl, inf/f) vous voi you (pl, inf) vous vi you (pl, inf) vous vi you (pl, inf) vous voi
they (m/fem) ils / elles loro them les li them leur loro them eux / elles loro

s = singular, pl = plural, inf = informal, f = formal, m = masculine, fem = feminine

There is more than one you in both languages, depending on how many people you are speaking to and how informal or formal you are being. In French, tu is singular and informal (when speaking to one person, such as a family member); while vous is plural, whether informal or formal (when speaking to more than one person) AND singular and formal (when speaking to one person, whom you do not know well or to whom you'd like to show respect). In Italian, tu is informal and singular, while Lei is formal and singular and voi is plural, whether informal or formal. Keep in mind that Lei takes a third person singular form when conjugating verbs (same as for he/she - lui/lei).

On and si are used as an abstract subject meaning one, they, you, we, people in general, etc. There are several translations of this into English where the subject doesn't refer to any person already mentioned: They say it's going to rain today. How are you supposed to do this? What should one do with $10 million? In addition, the French on is very commonly used to mean we instead of nous in everyday conversation. It always take a third person singular form when conjugating verbs, even though it refers to more than one person.

In both languages, if you want to use it to refer to a noun, you must know the gender. For example, il in French can mean he or it, depending on what noun the pronoun refers to. Il est petit, le garçon. He is small, the boy. Il est petit, le lit. It is small, the bed. Notice that they can also be translated in two ways in French (ils and elles), depending on the gender of the noun.


Verbs: Be, Have, Do

 
Present Tense
 
Past Tense
 
Future Tense
être / essere - to be suis sono   étais ero   serai sarò
es sei   étais eri   seras sarai
est è   était era   sera sarà
sommes siamo   étions eravamo   serons saremo
êtes siete   étiez eravate   serez sarete
sont sono   étaient erano   seront saranno
                 
avoir / avere - to have ai ho   avais avevo   aurai avrò
as hai   avais avevi   auras avrai
a ha   avait aveva   aura avrà
avons abbiamo   avions avevamo   aurons avremo
avez avete   aviez avevate   aurez avrete
ont hanno   avaient avevano   auront avranno
                 
faire / fare - to do, make fais faccio   faisais facevo   ferai farò
fais fai   faisais facevi   feras farai
fait fa   faisait faceva   fera farà
faisons facciamo   faisions facevamo   ferons faremo
faites fate   faisiez facevate   ferez farete
font fanno   faisaient facevano   feront faranno

Past tense here refers to the imperfect, not preterite.

In French, the subject pronoun must always be used before the verb conjugations. When the verb begins with a vowel, je becomes j' and is connected to the verb (j'ai). In informal situations, the same happens with tu: it becomes t' and is connected to the following verb (t'as). In Italian, you do not have to use the subject pronouns, unless you want to emphasize the subject or to avoid ambiguity.

There are several common and idiomatic expressions with the verbs avoir and avere, which translate to be in English:

to be hungry avoir faim avere fame
to be thirsty avoir soif avere sete
to be warm avoir chaud avere caldo
to be cold avoir froid avere freddo
to be right avoir raison avere ragione
to be wrong avoir tort avere torto
to be sleepy avoir sommeil avere sonno
to be afraid (of) avoir peur (de) avere paura (di)
to be # years old avoir # ans avere # anni
to need avoir besoin de avere bisogno di
to want, feel like avoir envie de avere voglia di

 

There is another verb in Italian that means to be, stare. But this verb is only used in expressions relating to health and feelings and when expressing the progressive form (be + gerund in English).

 
Present Tense
Past Tense
Future Tense
stare - to be sto stavo starò
stai stavi starai
sta stava starà
stiamo stavamo staremo
state stavate starete
stanno starano staranno

Interrogatives / Conjunctions / Adverbs

English French Italian English French Italian
who qui chi because parce que perché
whose de qui di chi and et e
what qu'est-ce que / quoi che cosa / che / cosa or ou o
where dove but mais ma
where from d'où di dove if si se
why pourquoi perché not pas non
when quand quando very très molto
how comment come also aussi anche
how much combien quanto while pendant mentre
which quel(le) quale since depuis da
that que che although bien que benché

 


Days / Months / Seasons

English French Italian English French Italian
Monday lundi lunedì January janvier gennaio
Tuesday mardi martedì February février febbraio
Wednesday mercredi mercoledì March mars marzo
Thursday jeudi giovedì April avril aprile
Friday vendredi venerdì May mai maggio
Saturday samedi sabato June juin giugno
Sunday dimanche domenica July juillet luglio
      August août agosto
spring le printemps la primavera September septembre settembre
summer l'été (m) l'estate (f) October octobre ottobre
autumn l'automne (m) l'autunno November novembre novembre
winter l'hiver (m) l'inverno December décembre dicembre

 

The days of the week and months of the year are all masculine in both languages (except domenica in Italian). If you want to express an action that happens habitually on a certain day, use the definite article before the day: le lundi / il lunedì (on Mondays). In a season or a month is translated as en in French (except for in spring, which is au printemps) and in in Italian. When writing the date, use the definite article (le or il) plus the number and then the month: le 5 mai / il 5 maggio. For the first day of a month, you must use premier or primo instead of the number.

 


Time / Weather / Directions

 

What time is it? Quelle heure est-il ? Che ora è? / Che ore sono? What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il ? Che tempo fa?
At what time? A quelle heure ? A che ora? It's nice Il fait bon Fa tempo buono
1:00 Il est une heure È l'una It's beautiful Il fait beau Fa bel tempo
2:00 Il est deux heures Sono le due It's hot Il fait chaud Fa caldo
3:10 Il est trois heures dix Sono le tre e dieci It's cold Il fait froid Fa freddo
19:50 Il est vingt heures moins dix Sono le venti meno dieci It's sunny Il fait du soleil C'è il sole
18:15 Il est dix-huit heures et quart Sono le diciotto e un cuarto It's windy Il fait du vent Tira vento
7:45 Il est huit heures moins le quart Sono le otto meno un quarto It's cool Il fait frais Fa fresco
15:30 Il est quinze heures et demie Sono le quindici e mezzo It's bad Il fait mauvais Fa brutto tempo
noon midi mezzogiorno It's foggy Il fait du brouillard C'è la nebbia
midnight minuit mezzanotte It's cloudy Il fait nuageux È nuvoloso
exactly précise in punto It's stormy Il fait orageux Il tempo è burrascoso
in the morning du matin di mattina It's raining Il pleut Piove
in the afternoon de l'après-midi del pomeriggio It's snowing Il neige Nevica
in the evening du soir di sera It's freezing Il gèle Fa un freddo gelido

 

English French Italian English French Italian
afternoon l'après-midi (m) il pomeriggio sunrise le lever du soleil il levar del sole
century le siècle il secolo sunset le coucher du soleil il tramonto
dawn l'aube l'alba time le temps il tempo
day le jour il giorno today aujourd'hui oggi
daybreak le point du jour la spuntar del giorno tomorrow demain domani
dusk la tombée de la nuit il far della notte week la semaine la settimana
evening le soir la sera year l'an (m) l'anno
fortnight la quinzaine la quindicina yesterday hier ieri
holiday la fête la festa last, previous dernier (ère) ultimo
hour l'heure (f) l'ora next prochain(e) prossimo
half hour une demi-heure una mezz'ora north nord nord
quarter hour un quart d'heure un quarto d'ora south sud sud
hour and half une heure et demi un'ora e mezzo east est est
leap year l'année bissextile l'anno bisestile west ouest ovest
midnight la minuit la mezzanotte northeast nord-est nord-est
minute la minute il minuto northwest nord-ouest nord-ovest
month le mois il mese southeast sud-est sud-est
morning la matin la mattina southwest sud-ouest sud-ovest
night la nuit la notte to/on the left à gauche a sinistra
noon le midi il mezzogiorno to/on the right à droite a destra
season la saison la stagione straight tout droit sempre diritto
second la seconde il secondo      


Colors & Shapes

 

English French Italian   English French Italian
red rouge rosso (-a)   square le carré il quadrato
pink rose rosa   circle le cercle il cerchio
orange orange arancione   triangle le triangle il triangolo
yellow jaune giallo (-a)   rectangle le rectangle il rettangolo
green vert(e) verde   oval l'ovale l'ovale
blue bleu(e) azzurro (-a)   box la boîte la scatola
purple lila / violet(te) viola   sphere la sphère la sfera
brown brun(e) / marron marrone   cube le cube il cubo
black noir(e) nero (-a)   pyramid la pyramide la piramide
white blanc(he) bianco (-a)   cone le cône il cono
gray gris(e) grigio (-a)   cylinder le cylindre il cilindro
silver argenté(e) argento (-a)   heart le cœur il cuore
gold dor oro (-a)   star l'étoile (f) la stella
        diamond le diamant il diamante
        crescent le croissant la mezzaluna

Remember that colors are adjectives and they are placed after the noun they modify. In French, add -e to form the feminine; in Italian, change the final -o to -a. Adjectives that already end in -e do not change for the feminine in either language. Adjectives that end in -a (such as lila or viola) tend to be invariable and do not change at all, not even for the plural.


Family

 

family la famille la famiglia stepson le beau-fils il figliastro
mother la mère la madre stepsister la belle-sœur la sorellastra
mom maman mamma stepbrother le beau-frère il fratellastro
father le père il padre half-sister la demi-sœur la sorellastra
dad papa papà half-brother le demi-frère il fratellastro
parents les parents i genitori mother-in-law la belle-mère la suocera
daughter la fille la figlia father-in-law le beau-père il suocero
son le fils il figlio daughter-in-law la belle-fille la nuora
children les enfants i figli son-in-law le gendre il genero
sister la sœur la sorella sister-in-law la belle-sœur la cognata
brother le frère il fratello brother-in-law le beau-frère il cognato
wife la femme / l'épouse la sposa godmother la marraine la madrina
husband le mari / l'époux lo sposo godfather le parrain il padrino
grandmother la grand-mère la nonna girl la jeune fille la ragazza
grandfather le grand-père il nonno boy le garçon il ragazzo
grandparents les grands-parents i nonni baby le bébé il bambino
granddaughter la petite-fille la nipote woman la femme la donna
grandson le petit-fils il nipote man l'homme l'uomo
grandchildren les petits-enfants i nipoti adult l'adulte l'adulto
cousin (f) la cousine la cugina relatives les parents i parenti
cousin (m) le cousin il cugino twins les jumeaux i gemelli
aunt la tante la zia birth la naissance la nascita
uncle l'oncle lo zio death la mort la morte
niece la nièce la nipote marriage le mariage il matrimonio
nephew le neveu il nipote divorce le divorce il divorzio
stepmother la belle-mère la matrigna single célibataire celibe / nubile
stepfather le beau-père il patrigno married marié(e) sposato (-a)
stepdaughter la belle-fille la figliastra divorced divorcé(e) divorziato (-a)


Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns

 

Possessive Adjectives
 
French
Italian
French
Italian
French
Italian
French
Italian
adjective + noun
masculine singular
masculine plural
feminine singular
feminine plural
my mon il mio mes i miei ma la mia mes le mie
your (s) ton il tuo tes i tuoi ta la tua tes le tue
his / her son il suo ses i suoi sa la sua ses le sue
our notre il nostro nos i nostri notre la nostra nos le nostre
your (pl) votre il vostro vos i vostri votre la vostra vos le vostre
their leur il loro leurs i loro leur la loro leurs le loro

 

In Italian, you must always use the definite article before the possessive adjective, except with singular family members that are not modified in any way. However, loro is invariable and always preceded by the definite article. In both languages, you generally use the definite article instead of a possessive adjective when referring to parts of the body (because it is obvious who they belong to).

In Italian, possessive adjectives (which precede nouns) and possessive pronouns (which take the place of nouns) have the same form. However, in French, there are different words for the possessive pronouns.

 

Possessive Pronouns
 
French
Italian
French
Italian
French
Italian
French
Italian
verb + pronoun
masculine singular
masculine plural
feminine singular
feminine plural
mine le mien il mio les miens i miei la mienne la mia les miennes le mie
yours (s) le tien il tuo les tiens i tuoi la tienne la tua les tiennes le tue
his / hers le sien il suo les siens i suoi la sienne la sua les siennes le sue
ours le nôtre il nostro les nôtres i nostri la nôtre la nostra les nôtres le nostre
yours (pl) le vôtre il vostro les vôtres i vostri la vôtre la vostra les vôtres le vostre
theirs le leur il loro les leurs i loro la leur la loro les leurs le loro

 

Remember that the forms for her/hers in Italian can also be capitalized and use for the singular formal your/yours: il Suo / i Suoi / la Sua / le Sue.


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