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Possessive Suffixes in Turkish
To say “my school”, “his car” in Turkish, we add certain suffixes to the word.
anne - mother; mom (ending in a vowel)
|annem||my mother||annemiz||our mother|
|annen||your mother (singular)||anneniz||your mother (plural)|
|annesi||his/her/its mother||anneleri||their mother|
Possessive suffixes follow the rules of Vowel Harmony. The construction is quite similar to the suffix “to be”.
For the suffixes “my” and “your”, words ending in a vowel get –m and –n respectively, without the need of an additional vowel.
āile >> āile+m >> āilem “my family”
araba >> araba+m >> arabam “my car”
If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is a or ı, then the vowel of the suffix is ı.
araba >> araba+mız >> arabamız “our car”
If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is o or u, then the vowel of the suffix is u.
uyku >> uyku+su>> uykusu “his/her/its sleep”
If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is e or i, then the vowel of the suffix is i.
kedi >> kedi+niz >> kediniz “your cat” (plural)
If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is ö or ü, then the vowel of the suffix is ü.
türkü >> türkü+müz >> türkümüz “our folk song”
The suffix for “their” is either –ları or –leri, depending on the last vowel of the word being an A-undotted vowel or an E-dotted vowel.
arabaları “their car(s)”
ev - house (ending in a consonant)
|evim||my house||evimiz||our house|
|evin||your house (singular)||eviniz||your house (plural)|
|evi||his/her/its house||evleri||their house|
When the word ends in a consonant, a vowel is added before the suffix. This is the same vowel with the one in the suffix, as can be seen in the examples below.
ev >> ev + i + miz >> evimiz “our house”
köy >> köy + ü + nüz >> köyünüz “your village” (plural)
If the word ends in a consonant, the letter s is omitted from the suffix for “his/her/its”.
at >> at + ı >> atı “his/her/its horse”
· The suffix for “their” –leri/–ları remains unchanged even if the word ends in a consonant.
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