Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Know [People] (connaître / conoscere / conèixer / conocer / conhecer)

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English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to know (people) connaître conoscere conèixer conocer conhecer
Present: know(s) connais conosco conec conozco conheço
  connais conosci coneixes conoces conheces
  connaît conosce coneix conoce conhece
  connaissons conosciamo coneixem conocemos conhecemos
  connaissez conoscete coneixeu conocéis conheceis
  connaissent conoscono coneixen conocen conhecem
Imperfect: knew/used to know connaissais conoscevo coneixia conocía conhecia
  connaissais conoscevi coneixies conocías conhecias
  connaissait conosceva coneixia conocía conhecia
  connaissions conoscevamo coneixíem conocíamos conhecíamos
  connaissiez conoscevate coneixíeu conocíais conhecíeis
  connaissaient conoscevano coneixien conocían conheciam
Preterite: knew connus conobbi coneguí conocí conheci
(rare in French or Italian speech) connus conoscesti conegueres conociste conheceste
(alternative Catalan below) connut conobbe conegué conoció conheceu
connûmes conoscemmo coneguérem conocimos conhecemos
connûtes conosceste coneguéreu conocisteis conhecestes
connurent conobbero conegueren conocieron conheceram
Future: will know connaîtrai conoscerò coneixeré conoceré conhecerei
connaîtras conoscerai coneixeràs conocerás conhecerás
connaîtra conoscerà coneixerà conocerá conhecerá
connaîtrons conosceremo coneixerem conoceremos conheceremos
connaîtrez conoscerete coneixereu conoceréis conhecereis
connaîtront conosceranno coneixeran conocerán conhecerão
Conditional: would know connaîtrais conoscerei coneixeria conocería conheceria
connaîtrais conosceresti coneixeries conocerías conhecerias
connaîtrait conoscerebbe coneixeria conocería conheceria
connaîtrions conosceremmo coneixeríem conoceríamos conheceríamos
connaîtriez conoscereste coneixeríeu conoceríais conheceríeis
connaîtraient conoscerebbero coneixerien conocerían conheceriam
Present Subjunctive: know(s) connaisse conosca conegui conozca conheça
connaisses conosca coneguis conozcas conheças
connaisse conosca conegui conozca conheça
connaissions conosciamo coneguem conozcamos conheçamos
connaissiez conosciate conegueu conozcáis conheçais
connaissent conoscano coneguin conozcan conheçam
Imperfect Subjunctive: knew connusse conoscessi conegués conociera conhecesse
(rare in French speech) connusses conoscessi coneguessis conocieras conhecesses
(alternative Spanish below) connût conoscesse conegués conociera conhecesse
  connussions conoscessimo coneguéssim conociéramos conhecêssemos
  connussiez conosceste coneguéssiu conocierais conhecêsseis
  connussent conoscessero coneguessin conocieran conhecessem
Affirmative Imperative: know          
Singular familiar you connais conosci coneix conoce conhece
Singular formal you connaissez conosca conegui conozca conheça
Let's... connaissons conosciamo coneguem conozcamos conheçamos
Plural familiar you connaissez conoscete coneixeu conoced conhecais
Plural formal you connaissez conoscono coneguin conozcan conheçam
Negative Imperative: don't know          
Singular familiar you ne connais pas non conoscere no coneguis no conozcas não conheças
Singular formal you ne connaissez pas non conosca no conegui no conozca não conheça
Let's not... ne connaissons pas non conosciamo no coneguem no conozcamos não conheçamos
Plural familiar you ne connaissez pas non consocete no conegueu no conozcáis não conheçais
Plural formal you ne connaissez pas non conoscono no coneguin no conozcan não conheçam
Gerund: knowing
Present Participle: knowing
en connaissant
coneixent conociendo conhecendo
Past Participle: known connu conosciuto conegut conocido conhecido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haver haber ter


The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig conèixer
vas conèixer
va conèixer
vam conèixer
vau conèixer
van conèixer

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

conociera / conociese
conocieras / conocieses
conociera / conociese
conociéramos / conociésemos
conocierais / conocieseis
conocieran / conociesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
conociere conhecer
conocieres conheceres
conociere conhecer
conociéremos conhecermos
conociereis conhecerdes
conocieren conhecerem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)



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