Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Know [People] (connaître / conoscere / conocer / conhecer)

Learn French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese together

return to list of verbs

Click a button to hide or show that language:

Click in the first row and drag left or right to change the order of the columns.


English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to know (people) connaître conoscere conocer conhecer
Present: know(s) connais conosco conozco conheço
  connais conosci conoces conheces
  connaît conosce conoce conhece
  connaissons conosciamo conocemos conhecemos
  connaissez conoscete conocéis conheceis
  connaissent conoscono conocen conhecem
Imperfect: knew/used to know connaissais conoscevo conocía conhecia
  connaissais conoscevi conocías conhecias
  connaissait conosceva conocía conhecia
  connaissions conoscevamo conocíamos conhecíamos
  connaissiez conoscevate conocíais conhecíeis
  connaissaient conoscevano conocían conheciam
Preterite / Simple Past: knew connus conobbi conocí conheci
(rare in French or Italian speech) connus conoscesti conociste conheceste
connut conobbe conoció conheceu
connûmes conoscemmo conocimos conhecemos
connûtes conosceste conocisteis conhecestes
connurent conobbero conocieron conheceram
Future: will know connaîtrai conoscerò conoceré conhecerei
connaîtras conoscerai conocerás conhecerás
connaîtra conoscerà conocerá conhecerá
connaîtrons conosceremo conoceremos conheceremos
connaîtrez conoscerete conoceréis conhecereis
connaîtront conosceranno conocerán conhecerão
Conditional: would know connaîtrais conoscerei conocería conheceria
connaîtrais conosceresti conocerías conhecerias
connaîtrait conoscerebbe conocería conheceria
connaîtrions conosceremmo conoceríamos conheceríamos
connaîtriez conoscereste conoceríais conheceríeis
connaîtraient conoscerebbero conocerían conheceriam
Present Subjunctive: know(s) connaisse conosca conozca conheça
connaisses conosca conozcas conheças
connaisse conosca conozca conheça
connaissions conosciamo conozcamos conheçamos
connaissiez conosciate conozcáis conheçais
connaissent conoscano conozcan conheçam
Imperfect Subjunctive: knew connusse conoscessi conociera conhecesse
(rare in French speech) connusses conoscessi conocieras conhecesses
(alternative Spanish below) connût conoscesse conociera conhecesse
  connussions conoscessimo conociéramos conhecêssemos
  connussiez conosceste conocierais conhecêsseis
  connussent conoscessero conocieran conhecessem
Future Subjunctive: will know     conociere conhecer
(rare in Spanish speech)     conocieres conheceres
(no French or Italian)     conociere conhecer
      conociéremos conhecermos
      conociereis conhecerdes
      conocieren conhecerem
Affirmative Imperative: know        
Singular familiar you connais conosci conoce conhece
Singular formal you connaissez conosca conozca conheça
Let's... connaissons conosciamo conozcamos conheçamos
Plural familiar you connaissez conoscete conoced conhecais
Plural formal you connaissez conoscono conozcan conheçam
Negative Imperative: don't know        
Singular familiar you ne connais pas non conoscere no conozcas não conheças
Singular formal you ne connaissez pas non conosca no conozca não conheça
Let's not... ne connaissons pas non conosciamo no conozcamos não conheçamos
Plural familiar you ne connaissez pas non consocete no conozcáis não conheçais
Plural formal you ne connaissez pas non conoscono no conozcan não conheçam
Gerund: knowing connaissant conoscendo conociendo conhecendo
Present Participle: knowing connaissant conoscente conociendo conhecendo
Past Participle: known connu conosciuto conocido conhecido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haber ter


There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

conociera / conociese
conocieras / conocieses
conociera / conociese
conociéramos / conociésemos
conocierais / conocieseis
conocieran / conociesen

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)


The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


Return to top of page

If you enjoy the tutorials, then please consider buying French, Informal French, Italian, Spanish, German, Swedish, or Dutch Language Tutorials as a PDF e-book with free mp3s and free lifetime updates through Gumroad.

Buy now

If you enjoy this website, please consider sending a donation of any amount through Paypal to help support ielanguages.com. This website has existed for nearly two decades (it was created in 1997!) and the content has always been free. Thank you very much!



FluentU offers authentic videos in French, Spanish, German, English, Chinese and Japanese. Learn from captions and translations and enjoy access to ALL languages!


Learn Spanish, French, German, Italian, Mandarin Chinese and English with authentic videos by Yabla that include subtitles and translations.

Interlinear Books

Learn to read languages with interlinear bilingual books that include the original language and an English translation below in a smaller font.

Udemy Language Learning Courses

Hundreds of free and paid online language learning video courses at Udemy. By native speakers and experts, from Arabic to Zulu.