This tutorial was written by Ömer & Mehmet Sener. If you are interested in authentic uses of language, go to Turkish realia for photos taken in Turkey.
Turkish Vowel Harmony
Vowel Harmony is easy to learn. The vowels are divided into two groups for this: The A-undotted group and the E-dotted group.
Note: Instead of memorizing the subtleties of each rule, it is more helpful to study the examples below by writing them down and repeating them with a loud voice, thus gaining a sense of the language.
The A-undotted group includes the vowels a, ı ,o, u. The vowel used in the last syllable of a word defines the way vowel harmony is constructed.
If the last vowel is a or ı, then the vowel(s) of the suffix is ı.
arkadaş >> arkadaş + ız >> Biz arkadaşız. “We are friends.”
hasta >> hasta + sınız >> Hastasınız. “You are ill.”
If the last vowel is o or u, then the vowel(s) of the suffix is u.
tok >> tok + um >> Tokum. “I am full.”
The E-dotted group consists of the vowels e, i , ö, ü.
If the last vowel is e or i, then the vowel(s) of the suffix is i.
ben >> ben + im >> Benim. “It’s me.” (lit. “I am.”)
If the last vowel is ö or ü, then the vowel(s) of the suffix is ü.
üzgün >> üzgün + sün >> Üzgünsün. “You are upset.”
mutlu - happy (ending in a vowel)
|mutlu + y + um||I am happy||mutlu + y + uz||we are happy|
|mutlu + sun||you are happy||mutlu + sunuz||you are happy (plural)|
|mutlu||he/she/it is happy||mutlu||they are happy|
If the word ends in a vowel, y is added before suffixes for “I” and “we”.
hasta >> hasta + y + ım >> Hastayım. “I’m ill.”
evde >> evde + y + iz >> Evdeyiz. "We are at home."
It should be noted that there are words that end with a soft L. In this case, the endings take E –dotted vowels instead.
meşgūl >> meşgūl + üz >> Meşgūlüz. “We are busy.”
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