Portuguese II Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar


21. To Do or Make

fazer - to do or make
eu faço nós fazemos
ele/ela/você faz eles/elas/vocês fazem

22. Work & School

doctor médico history história
dentist dentista math matemática
lawyer advogado algebra álgebra
professor professor geometry geometria
teacher professor science ciência
engineer engenheiro physics física
architect arquiteto chemistry química
writer escritor zoology zoologia
journalist jornalista botany botânica
musician músico geography geografia
painter pintor music música
pharmacist farmacêutico art arte
banker bancário drawing desenho
carpenter carpinteiro painting pintura
barber barbeiro linguistics lingüística
mechanic mecânico languages línguas / idiomas
salesman vendedor
electrician eletricista
postman carteiro
policeman policial
soldier soldado
pilot piloto
secretary secretária
typist digitador
nurse enfermeira

23. Countries & Nationalities

Country Masculine (Feminine) Nationality
Germany Alemanha alemão (alemã)
Argentina Argentina argentino(a)
Australia Austrália australiano(a)
Bolivia Bolívia boliviano(a)
Canada Canadá canadense
Columbia Colômbia colombiano(a)
Costa Rica Costa Rica costarriquenho(a)
Cuba Cuba cubano(a)
Chile Chile chileno(a)
China China chinês(a)
Denmark Dinamarca dinamarquês / dinamarquesa
Ecuador Equador equatoriano(a)
Egypt Egito egípcio(a)
Spain Espanha espanhol(a)
United States Estados Unidos (norte) americano(a)
France França francês(a)
India Índia indiano(a)
England Inglaterra inglês (inglesa) / britânico (a)
Italy Itália italiano(a)
Japan Japão japonês (japonesa)
Mexico México mexicano(a)
Norway Noruega norueguês(a) / norueguesa
Poland Polônia polaco(a) / polonês (polonesa)
Portugal Portugal português / portuguesa
Russia Rússia russo(a)
South Africa África do Sul (sul-)africano(a)
Sweden Suécia sueco(a)

24. To / In and From

to a
from de
in em

Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.

25. To Come & to Go

vir - to come ir - to go
eu venho nós vimos eu vou nós vamos
ele/ela/você vem eles/elas/vocês vêm ele/ela/você vai eles/elas/vocês vão

26. Misc. Words

a lot muito always sempre
very much muitíssimo everyday todos os dias
a little pouco now agora
very little pouquíssimo usually normalmente, usualmente
sometimes às vezes there
well bem over there ali
after depois too bad muito mal
poorly mal

27. Conjugating Regular Verbs

Verbs in Portuguese end in -ar, -er or -ir.  Before a verb is conjugated, it is called the infinitive.  Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing, cant- is the stem.)  To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense, add these endings to the stems:

-ar verbs -er verbs -ir verbs
o amos o emos o imos
a am e em e em

Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns, so just canto means I sing.  Here are some more regular verbs:

-ar verbs -er verbs -ir verbs
dançar to dance aprender to learn partir to leave
desejar to desire comer to eat imprimir to print
escutar to listen correr to run    
estudar to study ler to read    
falar to speak vender to sell
praticar to practice beber to drink
tomar to take compreender to understand
viajar to travel

To make sentences negative, simply put não in front of the verb.

28. Reflexive Verbs

The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs - the subject acts upon itself.  A reflexive verb in Portuguese will be marked with -se attached to the end of the infinitive.  These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form.  Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another.  It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms.  Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English, while the reciprocal verbs use "each other."

Reflexive Pronouns

Some common reflexive verbs:

deitar-se - to go to bed
banhar-se - to bathe oneself
casar-se - to get married
despedir-se - to farewell
levantar-se - to rise
sentar-se - to sit down
vestir-se - to dress oneself
atrever-se - to dare
queixar-se - to complain

29. Object Pronouns

The object pronouns are used when you're talking about someone or something that is not the subject of an action, and are placed together with the verb. If -lo/-la/-los/-las come after a verb in the infinitive, you take off the -r of the verb, and put an acute accent (´).

Object Pronouns
-lo / -la / -lhe
-los / -las / -lhes


Vou dizer-lhe a verdade. I will tell you the truth.

Vou apresentá-lo (inf: apresentar) a você. I will introduce him to you.

In everyday speech you can put the object pronoun in front of the verb, but it's technically wrong to write it this way:

Me diga se estou certo. Tell me if I'm right.

Diga-me se estou certo. Tell me if I'm right.

30. Irregular Verbs

For the irregular verbs, you better learn by heart when you learn them. There's no rule or pattern to follow, but don't be nervous, they are fewer in number than the regular verbs.

dizer - to say
eu digo
ele/ela/você diz
nós dizemos
eles/elas/vocês dizem

ir - to go
eu vou
ele/ela/você vai
nós vamos
eles/elas/vocês vão

pedir - to ask
eu peço
ele/ela/você pede
nós pedimos
eles/elas/vocês pedem

31. Impersonal "se"

It shows that an action is made by an indefinite person. It's common, but not simple. You can use other resources to make the same sentence. See the differences below:

Aqui se faz, aqui se paga. Here it's done, here it's paid (Brazilian proverb).

O que é feito aqui, é pago aqui. What is done here, is paid here.

Faz-se necessária a mudança.  The change is made necessary.

Precisamos mudar isso. We need to change it.

Quando se saberá?  When will it be known?

Quando saberemos? When will we know?

32. Preterito Perfeito

The pretérito perfeito tense (preterite / simple past) expresses an action in the past.  It is used to describe events that are finished or completed.  It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem:

-ar verbs -er verbs -ir verbs

Vivi em Portugal por dois anos.
 I lived in Portugal for two years.
Eles falaram com as crianças.  They spoke with the children.
Quem comeu o bolo de chocolate? Who ate the chocolate cake?

33. Preterito Imperfeito

The pretérito imperfeito tense (imperfect) expresses an action that used to happen but not anymore (used to) or it expresses an action that was happening at the same time as another action (was + present participle in English). It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem:

-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs

Eu falava com ela.
I used to talk to her / I was talking to her.
Eu falava com ela quando ele morreu.
I was talking to her when he died.
Vivia em Portugal dois anos.
 I lived in Portugal for two years. (but now I don't)
Eles falavam com as crianças.  They used to speak with the children.
Quem comia bolo de chocolate? Who used to eat chocolate cake?

34. Futuro do Presente

The futuro do presente is the simple future tense. All verbs add these endings to the stem:

all verbs

Ela fará a lição.  She will make the lesson.
Vocês dirigirão até sua casa? Will you drive to your house (or home)?
Nós deixaremos ele ir. We will let him go.

In everyday speech, the future tense is not used. Instead, in Brazil we use the form ir (to go) + infinitive of the verb. See the differences below:

Ela vai fazer a lição.  She will make the lesson.
Vocês vão dirigir até sua casa? Will you drive to your house (or home)?
Nós vamos deixar ele (or deixá-lo) ir. We will let him go.

35. Futuro do Preterito

The futuro do pretérito tense is the conditional tense, and is usually translated as would + infinitive in English. All verbs add these endings to the stem:

all verbs

Eu a amaria
.  I would love her.
Vocês comeriam o tomate? Would you eat the tomato?
Nós partiríamos mais cedo. We would leave earlier.

36. Food & Meals

breakfast café da manhã / desjejum tablecloth toalha de mesa
lunch almoço napkin guardanapo
supper ceia fork garfo
dinner jantar knife faca
meal refeição spoon colher
food comida plate, dish prato
bread pão glass copo
roll pão francês (or média) cup taça
butter manteiga salt sal
meat carne saltshaker saleiro
fish peixe pepper pimenta
vegetables vegetais (verduras / legumes) pepper shaker pimenteiro
fruit fruta sugar açúcar
cheese queijo sugar bowl açucareiro
crackers bolacha vinegar vinagre
candy doce coffeepot cafeteira
sandwich sanduíche teapot bule
ice cream sorvete tray bandeja

are all kind of leaves (like lettuce) and legumes are all other vegetables (like tomato, potato, etc.)

37. Gostar

In Portuguese, one who likes literally likes of something, so you need to use the preposition de (and the appropriate definite article if needed) after the verb gostar. Gostar plus a noun means to like something. Literally, it means to please and takes an indirect object, so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English.

Eu gosto de I like Nós gostamos de we like
Ele/ela/você gosta de he/she/you like Eles/elas/vocês gostam de they/you like

Eu gosto de flores.  I like flowers. (Note: If you like specific flowers, you say: Eu gosto das flores or Eu gosto destas flores)
Nós gostamos da casa.  We like the house.
Não gosto (disso).  I don't like it.
Você gosta (disso)?  Do you like it?

38. Fruits, Vegetables & Meats

apple maçã lettuce alface ham presunto
orange laranja cabbage couve bacon bacon / toucinho
banana banana cauliflower couve-flor chicken frango
grapefruit toranja aspargus aspargo turkey peru
lemon limão spinach espinafre lobster lagosta
peach pêssego tomato tomate water água
fig figo bean feijão soda refrigerante
grape uva rice arroz wine vinho
pear pêra carrot cenoura pork porco
plum amora turnip nabo pancake panqueca
cherry cereja onion cebola corn milho
pineapple abacaxi cucumber pepino sauce molho
melon melão artichoke alcachofra pasta macarrão
watermelon melancia eggplant berinjela* beet beterraba
strawberry morango radish rabanete egg ovo
raspberry framboesa broccoli brócolis cake bolo
blackberry jaboticaba pepper pimenta pie torta
beef bife garlic alho ice cream sorvete
sausage salsicha potato batata passion fruit maracujá

Eggplant is beringela in Portugal.

39. To Drink

beber - to drink tomar - to drink

When you use beber, it usually refers to alcohol, but there's no problem if you specify the drink after the verb. You can also say tomar o desjejum - to have the breakfast, but never say tomar o almoço or tomar o jantar. For this purpose we have the verbs almoçar - to have lunch and jantar - to have dinner.

40. Commands

To form the imperative/command forms, add these endings after the stem:

-ar verbs -er or -ir verbs
ele/ela/você -e -a
eles/elas/vocês -em -am

Fale!  = Speak!
Coma! = Eat!
Não coma! = Don't eat!

Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands:   and vão for ir and seja and sejam for ser.

41. More Negatives

To make sentences negative, you place não before the verb.  Other negatives may precede or follow the verb, but if they follow, they must follow a negative verb (a double negative).  The word order is no + verb + negative. Example: Ele não gosta de nada! He doesn’t like anything!

nada nothing, (not) anything
ninguém nobody, (not) anybody
nenhum(a) no, none
tampouco neither, either
nem nor
nem...nem neither... nor
nem sequer not even
nunca, jamais never, ever

Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative; jamais means ever when it follows an affirmative verb.

42. Holiday Phrases

Feliz Natal Merry Christmas
Feliz Ano Novo Happy New Year
Feliz Páscoa Happy Easter
Feliz Aniversário Happy Birthday

Brazilian National Anthem

by Osório Duque Estrada

Ouviram do Ipiranga às margens plácidas
De um povo heróico o brado retumbante
E o sol da liberdade em raios fúlgidos
Brilhou no céu da pátria nesse instante
Se o penhor desta igualdade
Conseguimos conquistar com braços fortes
Em teu seio, ó liberdade
Desafia o nosso peito à própria morte
Ò pátria amada, idolatrada, salve salve!
Brasil, de um sonho intenso um raio vívido
De amor e de esperança à terra desce
Se em teu formoso céu risonho e límpido
A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece
Gigante pela própria natureza
És belo, és forte, impávido colosso
Se em teu futuro espelha essa grandeza
Ó pátria amada
Entre outras mil és tu Brasil, ó pátria amada
Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil
Pátria amada, Brasil!

Deitado eternamente em berço esplêndido
Ao som do mar e à luz do céu profundo
Fulguras, ó Brasil, florão da América
Iluminado ao sol do novo mundo
Do que a terra, mais garrida!
Teus risonhos lindos campos têm mais flores
Nossos bosques têm mais vida!
Nossa vida em teu seio mais amores
Ò pátria amada, idolatrada, salve salve!
Brasil, de um sonho eterno seja símbolo
O lábaro que ostentas estrelado
E diga ao verde-louro desta flâmula
Paz no futuro e glória no passado
Mas se ergues da justiça a clava forte
Verás que um filho teu não foge à luta
Nem teme quem te adora a própria morte
Terra adorada
Entre outras mil és tu Brasil, ó pátria amada
Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil
Pátria amada, Brasil!
It was heard from the calm borders of the Ipiranga (river)
The loud scream from a heroic people
And the sun of liberty in light rays
Shone in the sky of the land in that instant
If the gift of the equality
With strong arms we could conquer
In thy breast, oh liberty
Challenges our breast to our own death
O beloved land, worshiped, save save!
Brazil, a living ray of an intense dream
Of love and hope comes down to the earth
If in thy beautiful and clear sky
The image of the Cruzeiro (group of stars) appears
Giant for its own nature
Thou art beautiful, strong and huge
If in thy future is shown this grandiosity
O beloved land
Among other thousand, thou art Brazil
Thou art kind mother of the children of this land
O beloved land Brazil!

Lying forever in a rich cradle
Hearing the sound of the sea and seeing the deep blue of thy sky
Thou art blessed o Brazil, flower of America
And lighten by the sun of the new world
Our land has more fruits
Thy fields has more flowers
Our forests has more lives
Our lives in thy breast have more love
O beloved land, worshiped, save save!
Brazil, be the symbol of a great dream
The starful flag that thou hangst
And tell to the deep green of this flag
Peace in the future and glory in the past
But if thou rises the clave of justice
You'll see that no child of yours leaves the battle
And who loves you has no fear even death
Beloved land!
Among other thousand, thou art Brazil
Thou art kind mother of the children of this land
O beloved land Brazil!

Portuguese National Anthem

Heróis do mar, nobre povo,
Nação valente, e imortal,
Levantai hoje de novo
O esplendor de Portugal!
Entre as brumas da memória,
Ó Pátria sente-se a voz
Dos teus egrégios avós,
Que há-de guiar-te à vitória!

Às armas, às armas!
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar,
Às armas, às armas!
Pela Pátria lutar
Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!

Desfralda a invicta Bandeira,
À luz viva do teu céu!
Brade a Europa à terra inteira:
Portugal não pereceu
Beija o solo teu jucundo
O Oceano, a rugir d'amor,
E teu braço vencedor
Deu mundos novos ao Mundo!

Às armas, às armas!
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar,
Às armas, às armas!
Pela Pátria lutar
Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!

Saudai o Sol que desponta
Sobre um ridente porvir,
Seja o eco de uma afronta
O sinal do ressurgir.
Raios dessa aurora forte
São como beijos de mãe,
Que nos guardam, nos sustêm,
Contra as injúrias da sorte.

Às armas, às armas!
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar,
Às armas, às armas!
Pela Pátria lutar
Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!

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