Latin II Tutorial: Grammar & Vocabulary


written by Brandon


16. Present Tense of Regular Verbs

First Conjugation
The four principal parts of almost all first conjugation verbs can be obtained from the stem of first person present indicative form by adding the endings -o, -are, -avi, and -atus. Rather than write out all four principal parts, I mark the regular verbs as (1).

When conjugating in the present tense, active voice, indicative mood (i.e. “I go”, “I am saying”, “I walk”, etc.), we are interested in the first two principle parts.  Remember that the first part is the “I” form and the second is the infinitive. 

So for the verb ambulo, -are, -avi, -atus, walk, “ambulo” means “I walk” and “ambulare” means “to walk.”

To conjugate verbs of the first conjugation, we take the infinitive, cut off the -are and add the following endings:

 

Singular

Plural

1st Person

-o

-amus

2nd Person

-as

-atis

3rd Person

-at

-ant

 

This means that for ambulo, the conjugation would be:

 

Singular

 

Plural

 

1st Person

ambulo

I walk, am walking, do walk

ambulamus

we walk, are walking, do walk

2nd Person

ambulas

you walk, are walking, do walk

ambulatis

you walk, are walking, do walk

3rd Person

ambulat

he/she/it walks, is walking, does walk

ambulant

they walk, are walking, do walk

Note that, in English, there are three different translations for each Latin word.

 

Second Conjugation


The second conjugation has -eo in the first principle part and -ēre in the second.  Conjugating them in the present is an identical process to the first conjugation except that the thematic vowel is -e- rather than -a-:

teneo, tenēre, tenui, tenitus, to hold, to have

 

Singular

 

Plural

 

1st Person

teneo

I hold, am holding, do hold

tenemus

we hold, are holding, do hold

2nd Person

tenes

you hold, are holding, do hold

tenetis

you hold, are holding, do hold

3rd Person

tenet

he/she/it walks, is walking, does walk

tenent

they hold, are holding, do hold

 

Third Conjugation


The third conjugation is the most unpredictable group.  They all end in -ere (note that this is a short -e- rather than the second conjugation's long -ē-) in the second principle part.  This conjugation is also split into two groups—regular 3rd conjugation verbs and i-stem verbs that end in -io in the first principle part and acts similar to a fourth conjugation verb.

Conjugating them is a little different as well.  Unlike the first and second conjugations, the stem vowel changes.  So after you cut off the -ere, you add these endings:

 

 

Singular

Plural

1st Person

-o, -io*

-imus

2nd Person

-is

-itis

3rd Person

-it

-unt, -iunt*

*-io verbs

 

 

3rd Conjugation

3rd Conjugation -io

 

dico, dicere, dixi, dictus to say

capio, capere, cepi, captus to take, capture

 

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

1st Person

dico

dicimus

capio

capimus

2nd Person

dicis

dicitis

capis

capitis

3rd Person

dicit

dicunt

capit

capiunt

 

Fourth Conjugation


The thematic vowel for 4th conjugation verbs is -i- so the second principle part ends in -ire.  The four principle parts are usually a regular -io, -ire, -ivi, -itus.  When regular, the dictionary entry will often be abbreviated with a (4) after the first principle part.  Other than this, the conjugation is the same as 3rd conjugation -io verbs:

audio, -ire, -ivi, -itus to hear

 

Singular

Plural

1st Person

audio

audimus

2nd Person

audis

auditis

3rd Person

audit

audiunt

 


 

17. Common  Verbs

 

First Conjugation

addigito (1)

to point [something] out

loco (1)

to place, put

aequo (1)

to make level, match

monstro (1)

to show, demonstrate

ambulo (1)

to walk, travel

muto (1)

to change, exchange

amo (1)

to love, like

neco (1)

to kill

celo (1)

to hide [something]

nego (1)

to deny, refuse

clamo (1)

to shout

nuntio (1)

to announce

claro (1)

to clarify, explain

opto (1)

to choose, desire, wish for

crucio (1)

to torture

oro (1)

to beg (for)

cogito (1)

to think, ponder, consider

paro (1)

to prepare, provide

corono (1)

to crown

porto (1)

to carry

damno (1)

to condemn, sentence

pugno (1)

to fight

dono (1)

to give, present, reward

sono, -are, -ui, -itus

to sound (transitive)

dubito (1)

to doubt, hesitate

specto (1)

to look at

flo (1)

to blow

spiro (1)

to breathe

habito (1)

to live, dwell

sto, stare, steti, staturus

to stand

juvo, juvare, juvi, jutus

to help, assist, aid

vasto (1)

to lay waste to, destroy

laboro (1)

to work (at), produce

voco (1)

to call

 

Second Conjugation

appareo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to appear

pareo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to obey

ardeo, -ēre, arsi, arsus

to burn

pateo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to spread, extend

careo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to lack, be without (+ gen. or abl.)

placeo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to please (+ dat.)

censeo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to expect, asses, tax

pleo, -ēre, -evi, -itus

to fill

deleo, -ēre, -evi, -itus

to destroy

sedeo, -ēre, sedi, sessurus

to sit

exerceo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to keep busy, practice, supervise

spondeo, -ēre, spospondi, sponsus

to pledge, affirm, swear

fleo, -ēre, flexi, flectus

to weep

taceo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to keep silent

habeo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to have, hold, possess

terreo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to frighten, alarm, terrify

maneo, -ēre, mansi, mansus

to remain

timeo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to fear, be afraid (of)

moneo, -ēre, -ui, -itus

to warn, remind

video, -ēre, vidi, visus

to see

moveo, -ēre, movi motus

to move

 

 

 

Third Conjugation

ago, -ere, egi, actus

to do, discuss, spend (time)

intellego, -ere, -lexi, -lectus

to understand

cano, -ere, cecini, cantus

to sing (of)

lego, -ere, lexi, lectus

to read, choose

cado, -ere, cecidi, casurus

to fall

mitto, -ere, misi, missus

to send

cedo, -ere, cessi, cessus

to grant, yield, submit to

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsus

to push, drive off

cresco, -ere, crevi, creturus

to grow, increase

peto, -ere, -ivi, -itus

to seek, ask for

curro, -ere, cucurri, cursus

to run

pono, -ere, posui, positus

to put, place

duco, -ere, duxi, ductus

to lead, consider

posco, -ere, poposci, [no 4th part]

to beg, demand

eruo, -uere, -ui, -itus

to uproot, to destroy

quaero, -ere, quaesivi, quaesitus

to look for, search for, obtain

figo, -ere, fixi, fictus (fixus)

to fix, attatch

rego, -ere, rexi, rectus

to set up, erect, raise

frango, -ere, fregi, fractus

to break, shatter, smash

repo, -ere, repsi, [no 4th part]

to creep, crawl

fremo, -ere, -ui, -itus

to complain loudly at

scribo, -ere, scripsi, scriptus

to write

incolo, -ere, -ui, [no 4th part]

to inhabit

vivo, -ere, vixi, victurus

to be alive, survive

 

Third Conjugation -io

capio, -ere, cepi, captus

to take, capture

jacio, -ere, jeci, jactus

to throw, hurl

facio, -ere, feci, factus

to make, do

specio, -ere, spexi, spectus

to look at

fugio, -ere, fugi, fugitus

to flee, escape from

 

 

 

Fourth Conjugation

aperio, -ire, -ui, -itus

to open

scio (4)

to know

audio (4)

to hear, listen (to)

sentio, -ire, sensi, sensus

to sense, feel, perceive

dormio (4)

to sleep

venio, -ire, veni, venturus

come

 

Asking yes/no questions


To make a sentence into a yes/no question, add -ne to the first word of the sentence.  Often, the main verb is also moved to the front.

Aperisne januam?   Are you opening the door?

 



18. Numbers

 

Number

Cardinal

Ordinal

Roman

1

unus, -a, -um

primus

I

2

duo, duae, duo

secundus

II

3

tres, tria

tertius

III

4

quattuor

quartus

IV

5

quinque

quintus

V

6

sex

sextus

VI

7

septem

septimus

VII

8

octo

octavus

VIII

9

novem

nonus

IX

10

decem

decimus

X

11

undecim

undecimus

XI

12

duodecim

duodecimus

XII

13

tredecim

tertius decimus

XIII

14

quattuordecim

quartus decimus

XIV

15

quindecim

quintus decimus

XV

16

sedecim

sextus decimus

XVI

17

septendecim

septimus decimus

XVII

18

duodeviginti

duodevicesimus

XVIII

19

undeviginti

undevicesimus

XIX

20

viginti

vicesimus

XX

21

viginti unus / unus et viginti

vicesimus primus

XXI

22

viginti duo / duo et viginti

vicesimus secundus

XXII

30

triginta

tricesimus

XXX

40

quadraginta

quadragesimus

XL

50

quinquaginta

quinquagesimus

L

60

sexaginta

sexagesimus

LX

70

septuaginta

septuagesimus

LXX

80

octoginta

octogesimus

LXXX

90

nonaginta

nonagesimus

XC

100

centum

centesimus

C

101

centum (et) unus

centesimus primus

CI

200

ducenti, -ae, -a

ducentesimus

CC

300

trecenti, -ae, -a

trecentesimus

CCC

400

quadragenti, -ae, -a

quadragentesimus

CCCC

500

quingenti, -ae, -a

quingentisimus

D

600

sescenti, -ae, -a

sescentesimus

DC

700

septingenti, -ae, -a

septingesimus

DCC

800

octingenti, -ae, -a

octingesimus

DCCC

900

nongenti, -ae, -a

nongentesimus

DCCCC

1000

mille

millesimus

M

2000

duo milia

bis millesimus

MM

10000

decem milia

decies millesimus

CCI/C/C

100000

centum milia

centies millesimus

CCCI/C/C/C

 


 

19. Days of the Week

 

Monday

dies, -ei m Lunae

Tuesday

dies, -ei m Martis

Wednesday

dies, -ei m Mercurii

Thursday

dies, -ei m Jovis

Friday

dies, -ei m Veneris

Saturday

dies, -ei m Saturni

Sunday

dies, -ei m Solis; dominica, -ae f

day

dies, -ei m./f.

morning

matutinum, -i, n.

afternoon

tempus, -oris, n. postmeridianum

in the afternoon

postmeridie

evening

vesper, -eri, m.

in the evening

vesperi

night

nox, noctis, f.

at night

noctu (NB this irregular form)

today

hodie

tomorrow

cras

tonight

hāc nocte

yesterday

heri

last night

proximā nocte

week

hebdomas, hebdomadis, f.; septimana, -ae, f.

weekend

finis, -is, m. hebdomadis

on the weekend

exeunte hebdomade

daily

cotidie

weekly

singulis hebdomadibus

 

To say “on Saturday” or “on Tuesday,” etc. we use the ablative singular of the day:


die Saturni
die Martis, etc.

 


 

20. Months and Seasons

 

January

Januarius, -i, m.

February

Februarius, -i, m.

March

Martius, -i, m.

April

Aprilis, -is, m.

May

Majus, -i, m.

June

Junius, -i, m.

July

Julius, -i, m.

August

Augustus, -i, m.

October

October, -bris, m.

November

November, -bris, m.

December

December, -bris, m.

month

mensis, -is, m.

year

annus, -i, m.

yearly

quotannis

season

tempus, -oris, n. anni

spring

ver, veris, n.

summer

aestas, -tatis, f.

fall

autumnus, -i, m.

winter

hiems, hiemis, f.

 

Saying “in January” or “in fall” is the same as the days of the week (use ablative singular):
Januario
autumno

 

When expressing a specific day of the month such as “May 3rd” or “July 19th”, we literally say “the 3rd day of May,” etc.  So those two dates would be tertius dies (mensis) Maji and undevicesimus dies (mensis) Julii, respectively.  Similar to the days of the week and the months, use the ablative to show on a date (i.e. tertio die Maji, undevicesimo die Julii)

 


 

21. Sentence Order

 

In general, the word order in a Latin sentence is subject-object-verb. (This will be further explained in coming sections).

 


 

22. Nominative Case Functions

 

The nominative case is the basic diction form of the noun.  It has two uses:

Subject of the Sentence

Poeta venit.   The poet comes.
Viri manent.    The men remain.

 

Predicate Nominative

“Predicate Nominative” is just a fancy phrase for “A = B” where the equal sign being a verb of being.

Poeta est servus.   The poet is a slave.
Vir amicus est.     The man is a friend.  (NB verb placement.)

 


 

23. Genitive of Possession

 

The genitive of possession is the most basic function of the genitive case and indicates that the nous in the genitive possesses the other noun.

terra regis                               The land of the king or The king's land.

 


 

24. Accusative: Direct object

 

The direct object of a sentence is the thing that is being “verbed.” In an English example, the word “apple” in “John ate the apple” is the direct object.

In Latin:
Milites urbem delent. The soldiers destroy the city.

NB that the above sentence to just as easily be rendered Urbem milites delent, Delent urbem milites, Delent milites urbem, etc. and have the same meaning due to the case system.

 


 

25. Dative: Indirect Object

 

Usually in English, we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object.  But Latin relies on the endings of the dative case.

Librum poetae das.    You give the book to the poet.  or  You give the poet the book.

 

Some verbs must take the dative case even when the meaning is more of an accusative meaning:

Domus viro placet.    The house pleases the man. (This may be better understood as “The house is pleasing to the man.”)

 


 

26. Declension of the Personal Pronouns

 

 

1st Person

2nd Person

3rd Person masc.

3rd Person fem.

3rd Person neut.

Nom.

ego

tu

is

ea

id

Gen.

mei

tui

ejus

ejus

ejus

Dat.

mihi, mi*

tibi

ei

ei

ei

Acc.

me

te

eum

eam

id

Abl.

me

te

eo

eo

Nom.

nos

vos

ei

eae

ea

Gen.

nostri

vestri

eorum

earum

eorum

Dat.

nobis

vobis

eis

eis

eis

Acc.

nos

vos

eos

eas

ea

Abl.

nobis

vobis

eis

eis

eis

 

* in poetry, mihi often becomes mi.

 


 

27.  Prepositions

 

All prepositions are either followed by the accusative case (usually denoting some sort of motion) or the ablative case (usually denoting with, by, from, or a fixed position).  Some prepositions can take either case but the meaning changes depending on which is used.

 

Preposition

Meaning

Latin Example

English Example

Prepositions with the Accusative

ad

to, toward

ad Asiam ambulant.

They walk to/toward Asia

 

for, with a view to

ad pacem

for peace

ante

before (space or time)

ante oppidum
ante bellum

before the town
before the war

circum

around

circum castra

around the camp

contra

against

Contra eum dico.

I speak against him.

inter

among

inter mortuos

among the dead

 

between

inter meam opinionem et tueam

between my opinion and yours

juxta

close to

juxta patriam

close to the homeland

ob

on account of, because of

ob metum

because of fear

per

through

per multa maria

through many seas

 

 

per iram

through anger

post

behind

post montem

behind the mountain

 

after

post mortem

after death

praeter

beyond

praeter insulas

beyond the islands

 

 

praeter spem

beyond expectation

propter

on account of

propter amorem

on account of love

trans

across

trans flumen

across the river

 

Prepositions with the Ablative

a, ab (before a vowel)

away from

a Britanniā

away from Britain

 

by

interfectus est a Caesare

he was killed by Caesar

cum*

with

cum amicis

with friends

de

down from

de montibus

down from the mountains

e, ex (before a vowel)

out of

e provinciā

out of the province

prae

in front of

prae aedificio

in front of the building

sine

without

sine pugnā et sine vulnere

without fight and without injury

 

Prepositions with either the Accusative or the Ablative

in

+ acc.

into

in Asiam

into Asia

 

 

against

oratio in Catilinam

a speech against Catilina

 

+ abl.

in, on

in Asiā est.

He is in Asia.

sub

+acc.

under (implying motion)

canis sub mensam it.

the dog goes under the table.

 

+ abl.

under (at rest)

canis sub mensā sedet.

the dog sits under the table.

super

+ acc.

over (with motion)

canis super mensam it.

the dog goes over the table.

 

+ abl.

above (at rest)

Super mensā sunt.

They are above the table.

 

* When used with a pronoun, cum becomes and enclitic and attaches to the end of the pronoun.


mecum   with me
quibuscum?  with whom?

 


28. To go / ire

 

eo, ire, ivi (ii), itus - to go

eo

imus

is

it is

it

eunt

 

Compounds that include ire

abeo

to go away, leave

adeo

to go toward, approach, attack, visit

ambio

to go around, encircle

circumeo

to go around, visit, cheat

coeo

to meet, mate, copulate

depereo

to be hopelessly in love with; to parish

exeo

to ward off; to leave

ineo

to enter

intereo

to perish

obeo

to travel to; to die, fade away

pereo

to perish

praeeo

to lead

prodeo

to advance

redeo

to return

subeo

to approach

transeo

to cross

veneo

to be for sale

 


 

29. To be able / posse

 

possum, posse, potui, – to be able

possum

possumus

potes

potestis

potest

possunt

 

Tecum ad tabernam ire possum.  I can come with you to the store.
Potesne mihi gladium dare?  Can you give me the sword?

 


 

30. Adjectives

 

Adjectives in Latin are broken up into two main groups: those who are declined like first and second declension nouns, and those that are declined like third declension nouns. 

All adjectives must agree in number, case, and gender with the noun that they modify.

Sample First/Second Declension Adjective:  malus, -a, -um, bad

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

 

Singular

Nom.

malus

mala

malum

Gen.

mali

malae

mali

Dat.

malo

malae

malo

Acc.

malum

malam

malum

Abl.

malo

malā

malo

 

Plural

Nom.

mali

malae

mala

Gen.

malorum

malarum

malorum

Dat.

malis

malis

malis

Acc.

malos

malas

mala

Abl.

malis

malis

malis

 

For the third declension adjectives, there are three subcategories: one-, two-, and three-termination adjectives.  Also, note that all third declension adjectives act like i-stem nouns.  Also, remember that for all neuter nouns and adjectives, the nominative singular will match the accusative singular and the nominative plural will match the accusative plural.

 

Three-Termination


acer, acris, acre, sharp (given are the nominative singular for the masculine, feminine, and neuter, respectively.)

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

 

Singular

Nom.

acer

acris

acre

Gen.

acris

acris

acris

Dat.

acri

acri

acri

Acc.

acrem

acrem

acre

Abl.

acri

acri

acri

 

Plural

Nom.

acres

acres

acria

Gen.

acrium

acrium

acrium

Dat.

acribus

acribus

acribus

Acc.

acres

acres

acria

Abl.

acribus

acribus

acribus

 

Two-Termination


omnis, omne, every, all (given are the masculine/feminine singular and the neuter singular)

 

 

Masculine / Feminine

Neuter

 

Singular

Nom.

omnis

omne

Gen.

omnis

omnis

Dat.

omni

omni

Acc.

omnem

omne

Abl.

omni

omni

 

Plural

Nom.

omnes

omnia

Gen.

omnium

omnium

Dat.

omnibus

omnibus

Acc.

omnes

omnia

Abl.

omnibus

omnibus

 

One-Termination


audax, -acis bold (given is the nominative singular and genitive singular for all genders)

 

 

Masculine / Feminine

Neuter

 

Singular

Nom.

audax

audax

Gen.

audacis

audacis

Dat.

audaci

audaci

Acc.

audacem

audax

Abl.

audaci

audaci

 

Plural

Nom.

audaces

audacia

Gen.

audacium

audacium

Dat.

audacibus

audacibus

Acc.

audaces

audacia

Abl.

audacibus

audacibus

 

There are nine adjectives that, for all intents and purposes, belong to the first/second declension adjective group.  However, they are slightly irregular in the fact that they have -ius in the genitive singular and -i in the dative singular of all genders.  The adjectives are:

 

alius, alia, aliud

another

alter, altera, alterum

the other (of two)

uter, utera, uterum

which (of two)

neuter, neutra, neutrum

neither

ullus, ulla, ullum

any

nullus, nulla, nullum

no, none

solus, sola, solum

only

totus, tota, totum

whole

unus, una, unum

one

 


 

31. Question Words

 

quis, quis, quid*

who, what

qualis, -is

what sort / kind of

quomodo

how

cur

why

quo

where to

ubi

where

 

*the declension of quis, quid is as follows:

 

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

 

Singular

Nom.

quis

quid

Gen.

cujus

cujus

Dat.

cui

cui

Acc.

quem

quid

Abl.

quo

quo

 

Plural

Nom.

qui

quae

quae

Gen.

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dat.

quibus

quibus

quibus

Acc.

quos

quas

quae

Abl.

quibus

quibus

quibus

 


 

32. The Family

 

Parents

parens, -entis, m./f.

Cousin (brother's child)

patruelis, -is, m./f.

Mother

mater, -tris, f.

Cousin (sister's child)

consobrinus, -i, m.
consobrina, -ae, f.

Father

pater, -tris, m.

Uncle (father's brother)

patruus, -i, m.

Son

filis, -i, m.

Uncle (mother's brother)

avunculus, -i, m.

Daughter

filia, -ae, f.

Aunt (father's sister)

amita, -ae, f.

Brother

frater, -tris, m.

Aunt (mother's sister)

matertera, -ae, f.

Sister

soror, -ris, f.

Relative

cognatus, -i, m.
cognata, -ae, f.

Grandfather

avus, -i, m.

Grandmother

avia, -ae, f.

Husband

maritus, -i, m.

Grandchildren

nepotes, -otum, m.pl.

Wife

uxor, -ris, f.

Grandson

nepos, -otis, m.

Boy

puer, -i, m.

Granddaughter 

neptis, -is, f.

Girl

puella, -ae, f.

Niece

filia, -ae, f. sororis/fratris

Friend (m)

amicus, -i, m.

Nephew

filius, -i, m. sororis/fratris

Friend (f)

amica, -ae, f.

Child

liber, liberi, m.

Baby

infans, -antis, m./f.

 


 

33. Present tense of velle, nolle, malle

 

volo, velle, volui, – to want, wish

nolo, nolle, nolui, – to not want, to be unwilling

malo, malle, malui, – to prefer

volo

volumus

nolo

nolumus

malo

malumus

vis

vultis

non vis

non vultis

mavis

mavultis

vult

volunt

non vult

nolunt

mavult

malunt

 


 


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