Indonesian Prefixes, Suffixes, and Circumfixes

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Indonesian Affixes

Indonesian Prefixes:

word me ber di ter pe per memper se
Tulis Menulis - Ditulis Tertulis Penulis - - -
(to write) (write) - (written) (written) (writer) - - -
Jalan - Berjalan - - Pejalan - - -
(to walk) - (to walk) - - (walker) - - -
Baca Membaca - Dibaca Terbaca Reader - - -
(to read) (read) - (read) (read) (pembaca) - - -
Lihat Melihat - Dilihat Terlihat - - - -
(to see) (see) - (seen) (seen) - - - -
Dengar Mendengar - Didengar Terdengar Pendengar - - -
(to hear, listen) (hear, listen) - (heard) (heard) (listener) - - -

 

The - does not mean that the words do not exist; they just don't make sense, or they need a suffix.

The prefix 'memper-' has two function:

1. if it is followed by an adjective, it is to make something to be (the adjective).

2. if it is followed by a verb, it is to do something to other person, to make other person (the verb)

There is a confusion between the prefix 'pe' and 'per'.

- 'pe' shows the person who does the verb, while

- 'per' shows the person who has a profession as the verb.

'se' means one. You can see how it works on the numbering section.


Prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes


Prefixes >> prefixes are always pronounced with a closed e

Prefix me-
to make an active sentence, to make something change, and needs an object (watch how the letter changes before the first word of the infinitive)

Mengambil Me + ambil To take
Membuat Me + buat To make, to create
Mencari Me + cari To search, to look for
Mendengar Me + dengar To hear, to listen to
Mengevaluasi Me + evaluasi To evaluate
Mengganti Me + ganti To change
Menghilang Me + hilang To be disappeared
Mengisi Me + isi To fill in
Menjual Me + jual To sell
Mengira Me + kira To guess
Melihat Me + lihat To see
Memasak Me + masak To cook
Mengoperasi Me + operasi To do an operation(surgery)
Memindah Me + pindah To move (stuff)
Merasa Me + rasa To feel
Menyapu Me + sapu To sweep
Menulis Me + tulis To write
Mengulang Me + ulang To repeat

 

Saya mengambil baju-baju saya - I take my clothes

Kamu membuat lukisan - You make a painting (you paint/you are painting)

Saya mencari teman saya - I look for my friend

Saya mendengar sesuatu - I hear something

Kamu mengisi gelas itu dengan air - You fill the glass with water

Ayah menjual mobilnya - Father sells his car

Kamu melihatku? - Do you see me?

Saya memindah weblog saya - I move my weblog

Saya merasa capai / lelah - I feel tired

Dia menyapu lantai - She/he sweeps the floor

Kamu menulis sebuah lagu - You write a song


Prefix ber-
to make an active sentence that does not have to followed by an object

Berangkat Ber + angkat To have a departure
Berbahasa Ber + bahasa To have an ability to speak a/some language/s
Bercinta Ber + cinta To have sex
Berdansa Ber + dansa To have a dance
Berguru Ber + guru To have a study
Berhitung Ber + hitung To have count
Berjanji Ber + janji To have a promise
Bermain Ber + main To have a play
Berpura-pura Ber + pura-pura To have a pretend
Bersantai Ber + santai To have a relax
Bertaruh Ber + taruh To have a bet
Berubah Ber + ubah To have a change
Bervariasi Ber + variasi To have a variation
Berzina Ber + zina To have an affair, a prostitution

 

Ayah berangkat ke kantor - Father leaves for office

Saya berbahasa Indonesia - I speak Indonesian

Apakah kamu bercinta dengannya? - Do you have sex with her?

Maukah kamu berdansa denganku? - Would you dance with me?

Saya berjanji padamu - I promise you

Jangan berpura-pura tidak tahu -  Don't pretend like you don't know

Mari bersantai di gazebo -Let's relax in the gazebo

Aku bertaruh dia akan menang - I bet she/he will win


Prefix di-
to make a passive sentence  (note: must be caused by something)

Diambil Di + ambil To be taken
Dibuat Di + buat To be made
Dicari Di + cari To be searched, to be looked for
Didamba Di + damba To be wanted, to be waited
Diganti Di + ganti To be changed
Dihuni Di + huni To be occupied
Diisi Di + isi To be filled in
Dijumlah Di + jumlah To be calculated
Dikandung Di + kandung To be contained
Dilihat Di + lihat To be seen
Diminta Di + minta To be asked
Diolah Di + olah To be processed (factory)
Diproses Di + proses To be processed
Dirinci Di + rinci To be explained, to be described
Disumpah Di + sumpah To be sworn
Ditambah Di + tambah To be added, to be increased
Diulang Di + ulang To be repeated

 

Kamu dicari orangtuamu - You are looked for by your parents (your parents [are]look[ing] for you)

Jadwal hari ini telah diganti - Today's schedule is changed

Rumah ini hanya dihuni oleh kami berdua - This house is only occupied by us (just us that live in this house)

Aku sudah lakukan apa yang diminta olehnya - I have done what she/he asked me to

Susu itu diolah di pabrik - The milk is processed in the factory

Saya adalah penerjemah yang telah disumpah - I am a sworn translator


Prefix ter-
To make a superlative [Note: you can change the prefix 'ter-' with the word paling, i.e: terbaru = paling baru (the newest)]
To make a passive sentence, but not like di-, we don't know if the word with ter- is caused by somehing

Terbaru Ter + baru The newest
Tercantik Ter + cantik The fairest (woman)
Terenak Ter + enak The most delicious
Terindah Ter + indah The most beautiful
Terkecil Ter + kecil The smallest
Terlebar Ter + lebar The widest
Termanis Ter + manis The sweetest
Terpandai Ter + pandai The cleverest/the smartest
Terpintar Ter + pintar The cleverest/the smartest
Tertua Ter + tua The oldest
Terambil Ter + ambil To be taken
Tercuri Ter + curi To be stolen
Terganggu Ter + ganggu To be disturbed
Teringat Ter + ingat To be remember
Terjual Ter + jual To be sold
Terlihat Ter + lihat To be seen
Tertulis Ter + tulis To be written

 

Dia adalah wanita tercantik di Swedia - She is the most beautiful woman in Sweden

Bali adalah tempat terindah yang pernah kulihat - Bali is the most beautiful place I've ever seen

Kenangan itu termanis dalam hidupku - That was the sweetest memory in my life ever

Dia adalah anak terpandai di kelas - He is the cleverest boy in the class

Saya merasa sangat terganggu - I am feeling so disturbed/annoyed/aggravated

Saya teringat akan Bali - I remember about Bali

Gaun itu telah terjual - The gown is sold

Kamu bisa terlihat orang lain! - You could have been seen!

Kalimat itu tertulis di kertas - That sentence is written on the paper


Prefix pe-
Person / thing who does, makes, etc.

Pengambil Pe + ambil Person who takes
Pemburu Pe + buru Hunter
Pencium Pe + cium Kisser
Pendaki Pe + daki Hiker
Penghitung Pe + hitung Person who counts / A tool used for counting things
Pengikut Pe + ikut Follower
Penjual Pe + jual Seller
Pengasih Pe + kasih Person who likes to give
Pelukis Pe + lukis Painter
Pemula Pe + mula Beginner
Pemukul Pe + pukul Person who hits
Penyanyi Pe + nyanyi Singer
Penyaji Pe + saji Servant
Penari Pe + tari Dancer
Penunggu Pe + tunggu Person who waits

 

Dia adalah pendaki yang hebat - She/he is a great climber

Mereka adalah pengikutku - They are my follower

Pelan-pelan, aku masih pemula - Slow down, I am still a beginner

Aku ingin menjadi penyanyi - I want to be a singer

Kamu adalah penari yang baik - You are a good dancer

Dia adalah pencium yang hebat - He's an unbelievable kisser

 



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