Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Read (lire / leggere / llegir / leer / ler)

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English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to read lire leggere llegir leer ler
           
Present: read(s) lis leggo llegeixo leo leio
  lis leggi llegeixes lees lês
  lit legge llegeix lee
  lisons leggiamo llegim leemos lemos
  lisez leggete llegiu leéis ledes
  lisent leggono llegeixen leen leem
           
Imperfect: read/used to read lisais leggevo llegia leía lia
  lisais leggevi llegies leías lias
  lisait leggeva llegia leía lia
  lisions leggevamo llegíem leíamos líamos
  lisiez leggevate llegíeu leíais líeis
  lisaient leggevano llegien leían liam
           
Preterite: read lus lessi llegí leí li
(rare in French or Italian speech) lus leggesti llegires leíste leste
(alternative Catalan below) lut lesse llegí leyó leu
lûmes leggemmo llegírem leímos lemos
lûtes leggeste llegíreu leísteis lestes
lurent lessero llegiren leyeron leram
           
Future: will read lirai leggerò llegiré leeré lerei
liras leggerai llegiràs leerás lerás
lira leggerà llegirà leerá lerá
lirons leggeremo llegirem leeremos leremos
lirez leggerete llegireu leeréis lereis
liront leggeranno llegiran leerán lerão
           
Conditional: would read lirais leggerei llegiria leería leria
lirais leggeresti llegiries leerías lerias
lirait leggerebbe llegiria leería leria
lirions leggeremmo llegiríem leeríamos leríamos
liriez leggereste llegiríeu leeríais leríeis
liraient leggerebbero llegirien leerían leriam
           
Present Subjunctive: read(s) lise legga llegeixi lea leia
lises legga llegeixis leas leias
lise legga llegeixi lea leia
lisions leggiamo llegim leamos leiamos
lisiez leggiate llegiu leáis leiais
lisent leggano llegeixin lean leiam
           
Imperfect Subjunctive: read lusse leggessi
llegís leyera lesse
(rare in French speech) lusses leggessi
llegissis leyeras lesses
(alternative Spanish below) lût leggesse llegís leyera lesse
  lussions leggessimo llegíssim leyéramos lêssemos
  lussiez leggeste llegíssiu leyerais lêsseis
  lussent leggessero llegissin leyeran lessem
           
Affirmative Imperative: read          
Singular familiar you lis leggi llegeix lee
Singular formal you lisez legga llegeixi lea leia
Let's... lisons leggiamo llegim leamos leiamos
Plural familiar you lisez leggete llegiu leed lede
Plural formal you lisez leggano llegeixin lean leiam
         
Negative Imperative: don't read          
Singular familiar you ne lis pas non legere no llegeixis no leas não leias
Singular formal you ne lisez pas non legga no llegeixi no lea não leia
Let's not... ne lisons pas non leggiamo no llegim no leamos não leiamos
Plural familiar you ne lisez pas non leggete no llegiu no leáis não leiais
Plural formal you ne lisez pas non leggano no llegeixin no lean não leiam
           
Gerund: reading
Present Participle: reading
en lisant
lisant
leggendo
leggente
llegint leyendo lendo
Past Participle: read lu letto llegit leído lido
           
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haver haber ter

 

The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig llegir
vas llegir
va llegir
vam llegir
vau llegir
van llegir

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

leyera / leyese
leyeras / leyeses
leyera / leyese
leyéramos / leyésemos
leyerais / leyeseis
leyeran / leyesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
leyere ler
leyeres leres
leyere ler
leyéremos lermos
leyereis lerdes
leyeren lerem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.

ler
leres
ler
lermos
lerdes
lerem

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)

lera
leras
lera
lêramos
lêreis
leram

 


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