Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Have to / Must (devoir / dovere / deber / dever)

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English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to have to / must devoir dovere deber dever
Present: must, have/has to dois devo / debbo debo devo
  dois devi debes deves
  doit deve debe deve
  devons dobbiamo debemos devemos
  devez dovete debéis deveís
  doivent devono / debbono deben devem
Imperfect: was/were supposed to devais dovevo debía devia
  devais dovevi debías devias
  devait doveva debía devia
  devions dovevamo debíamos devíamos
  deviez dovevate debíais devíeis
  devaient dovevano debían deviam
Preterite / Simple Past: had to dus dovei / dovetti debí devi
(rare in French or Italian speech) dus dovesti debiste deveste
dut dové / dovette debió deveu
dûmes dovemmo debimos devemos
dûtes doveste debisteis devestes
durent doverono / dovettero debieron deveram
Future: will have to devrai dovrò deberé deverei
devras dovrai deberás deverás
devra dovrà deberá deverá
devrons dovremo deberemos deveremos
devrez dovrete deberéis devereis
devront dovranno deberán deverão
Conditional: should/ought to devrais dovrei debería deveria
devrais dovresti deberías deveria
devrait dovrebbe debería deveria
devrions dovremmo deberíamos deveríamos
devriez dovreste deberíais deveríeis
devraient dovrebbero deberían deveriam
Present Subjunctive: must, have/has to doive debba deba deva
doives debba debas devas
doive debba deba deva
devions dobbiamo debamos devamos
deviez dobbiate debáis devais
doivent debbano deban devam
Imperfect Subjunctive: had to dusse dovessi debiera devesse
(rare in French speech) dusses dovessi debieras devesses
(alternative Spanish below) dût dovesse debiera devesse
  dussions dovessimo debiéramos devêssemos
  dussiez doveste debierais devêsseis
  dussent dovessero debieran devessem
Future Subjunctive: will have to     debiere dever
(rare in Spanish speech)     debieres deveres
(no French or Italian)     debiere dever
      debiéremos devermos
      debiereis deverdes
      debieren deverem
Affirmative Imperative
Singular familiar you dois devi debe deve
Singular formal you devez debba deba deva
Let's... devons dobbiamo debamos devamos
Plural familiar you devez dovete debed devei
Plural formal you devez debbano deban devam
Negative Imperative        
Singular familiar you ne dois pas non dovere no debas não devas
Singular formal you ne devez pas non debba no deba não deva
Let's not... ne devons pas non dobbiamo no debamos não devamos
Plural familiar you ne devez pas non dovete no debáis não devais
Plural formal you ne devez pas non debbano no deban não devam
Gerund: having to devant dovendo debiendo devendo
Present Participle: having to devant dovente debiendo devendo
Past Participle: had to dovuto debido devido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haber ter


There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

debiera / debiese
debieras / debieses
debiera / debiese
debiéramos / debiésemos
debierais / debieseis
debieran / debiesen

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)


The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.



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