Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Have to / Must (devoir / dovere / deure / deber / dever)

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English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to have to / must devoir dovere deure deber dever
Present: must, have/has to dois devo / debbo dec debo devo
  dois devi deus debes deves
  doit deve deu debe deve
  devons dobbiamo devem debemos devemos
  devez dovete deveu debéis deveís
  doivent devono / debbono deuen deben devem
Imperfect: was/were supposed to devais dovevo devia debía devia
  devais dovevi devies debías devias
  devait doveva devia debía devia
  devions dovevamo devíem debíamos devíamos
  deviez dovevate devíeu debíais devíeis
  devaient dovevano devien debían deviam
Preterite: had to dus dovei / dovetti deguí debí devi
(rare in French or Italian speech) dus dovesti degueres debiste deveste
(alternative Catalan below) dut dové / dovette degué debió deveu
dûmes dovemmo deguérem debimos devemos
dûtes doveste deguéreu debisteis devestes
durent doverono / dovettero degueren debieron deveram
Future: will have to devrai dovrò deuré deberé deverei
devras dovrai deuràs deberás deverás
devra dovrà deurà deberá deverá
devrons dovremo deurem deberemos deveremos
devrez dovrete deureu deberéis devereis
devront dovranno deuran deberán deverão
Conditional: should/ought to devrais dovrei deuria debería deveria
devrais dovresti deuries deberías deveria
devrait dovrebbe deuria debería deveria
devrions dovremmo deuríem deberíamos deveríamos
devriez dovreste deuríeu deberíais deveríeis
devraient dovrebbero deurien deberían deveriam
Present Subjunctive: must, have/has to doive debba degui deba deva
doives debba deguis debas devas
doive debba degui deba deva
devions dobbiamo deguem debamos devamos
deviez dobbiate degueu debáis devais
doivent debbano deguin deban devam
Imperfect Subjunctive: had to dusse dovessi degués debiera devesse
(rare in French speech) dusses dovessi deguessis debieras devesses
(alternative Spanish below) dût dovesse degués debiera devesse
  dussions dovessimo deguéssim debiéramos devêssemos
  dussiez doveste deguéssiu debierais devêsseis
  dussent dovessero deguessin debieran devessem
Affirmative Imperative
Singular familiar you dois devi deu debe deve
Singular formal you devez debba degui deba deva
Let's... devons dobbiamo deguem debamos devamos
Plural familiar you devez dovete deveu debed devei
Plural formal you devez debbano deguin deban devam
Negative Imperative          
Singular familiar you ne dois pas non dovere no deguessis no debas não devas
Singular formal you ne devez pas non debba no degués no deba não deva
Let's not... ne devons pas non dobbiamo no deguéssim no debamos não devamos
Plural familiar you ne devez pas non dovete no deguéssiu no debáis não devais
Plural formal you ne devez pas non debbano no deguessin no deban não devam
Gerund: having to
Present Participle: having to
en devant
devent debiendo devendo
Past Participle: had to dovuto degut debido devido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haver haber ter


The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig deure
vas deure
va deure
vam deure
vau deure
van deure

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

debiera / debiese
debieras / debieses
debiera / debiese
debiéramos / debiésemos
debierais / debieseis
debieran / debiesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
debiere dever
debieres deveres
debiere dever
debiéremos devermos
debiereis deverdes
debieren deverem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)



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