Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Know [Facts] (savoir / sapere / saber / saber / saber)

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English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to know (facts) savoir sapere saber saber saber
Present: know(s) sais so sei
  sais sai saps sabes sabes
  sait sa sap sabe sabe
  savons sappiamo sabem sabemos sabemos
  savez sapete sabeu sabéis sabeis
  savent sanno saben saben sabem
Imperfect: knew/used to know savais sapevo sabia sabía sabia
  savais sapevi sabies sabías sabias
  savait sapeva sabia sabía sabia
  savions sapevamo sabíem sabíamos sabíamos
  saviez sapevate sabíeu sabíais sabíeis
  savaient sapevano sabien sabían sabiam
Preterite: knew sus seppi sabí supe soube
(rare in French or Italian speech) sus sapesti saberes supiste soubeste
(alternative Catalan below) sut seppe sabé supo soube
sûmes sapemmo sabérem supimos soubemos
sûtes sapeste sabéreu supisteis soubestes
surent seppero saberen supieron souberam
Future: will know saurai saprò sabré sabré saberei
sauras saprai sabràs sabrás saberás
saura saprà sabrà sabrá saberá
saurons sapremo sabrem sabremos saberemos
saurez saprete sabreu sabréis sabereis
sauront sapranno sabran sabrán saberão
Conditional: would know saurais saprei sabria sabría saberia
saurais sapresti sabries sabrías saberias
saurait saprebbe sabria sabría saberia
saurions sapremmo sabríem sabríamos saberíamos
sauriez sapreste sabríeu sabríais saberíeis
sauraient saprebbero sabrien sabrían saberiam
Present Subjunctive: know(s) sache sappia sàpiga sepa saiba
saches sappia sàpigues sepas saibas
sache sappia sàpiga sepa saiba
sachions sappiamo sapiguem sepamos saibamos
sachiez sappiate sapigueu sepáis saibais
sachent sappiano sàpiguen sepan saibam
Imperfect Subjunctive: knew susse sapessi sabés supiera soubesse
(rare in French speech) susses sapessi sabessis supieras soubesses
(alternative Spanish below) sût sapesse sabés supiera soubesse
  sussions sapessimo sabéssim supiéramos soubéssemos
  sussiez sapeste sabéssiu supierais soubésseis
  sussent sapessero sabessin supieran soubessem
Affirmative Imperative: know          
Singular familiar you sache sappi sàpigues sabe sabe
Singular formal you sachez sappia sàpiga sepa saiba
Let's... sachons sappiamo sapiguem sepamos saibamos
Plural familiar you sachez sapete sapigueu sabed sabei
Plural formal you sachez sappiano sàpiguen sepan saibam
Negative Imperative: don't know          
Singular familiar you ne sache pas non sapere no sàpigues no sepas não saibas
Singular formal you ne sachez pas non sappia no sàpiga no sepa não saiba
Let's not... ne sachons pas non sappiamo no sapiguem no sepamos não saibamos
Plural familiar you ne sachez pas non sapete no sapigueu no sepáis não saibais
Plural formal you ne sachez pas non sanno no sàpiguen no sepan não saibam
Gerund: knowing
Present Participle: knowing
en savant
sabent sabiendo sabendo
Past Participle: known su saputo sabut sabido sabido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haver haber ter


The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig saber
vas saber
va saber
vam saber
vau saber
van saber

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

supiera / supiese
supieras / supieses
supiera / supiese
supiéramos / supiésemos
supierais / supieseis
supieran / supiesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
supiere souber
supieres souberes
supiere souber
supiéremos soubermos
supiereis souberdes
supieren souberem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)



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