Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Know [Facts] (savoir / sapere / saber / saber)

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English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to know (facts) savoir sapere saber saber
Present: know(s) sais so sei
  sais sai sabes sabes
  sait sa sabe sabe
  savons sappiamo sabemos sabemos
  savez sapete sabéis sabeis
  savent sanno saben sabem
Imperfect: knew/used to know savais sapevo sabía sabia
  savais sapevi sabías sabias
  savait sapeva sabía sabia
  savions sapevamo sabíamos sabíamos
  saviez sapevate sabíais sabíeis
  savaient sapevano sabían sabiam
Preterite / Simple Past: knew sus seppi supe soube
(rare in French or Italian speech) sus sapesti supiste soubeste
sut seppe supo soube
sûmes sapemmo supimos soubemos
sûtes sapeste supisteis soubestes
surent seppero supieron souberam
Future: will know saurai saprò sabré saberei
sauras saprai sabrás saberás
saura saprà sabrá saberá
saurons sapremo sabremos saberemos
saurez saprete sabréis sabereis
sauront sapranno sabrán saberão
Conditional: would know saurais saprei sabría saberia
saurais sapresti sabrías saberias
saurait saprebbe sabría saberia
saurions sapremmo sabríamos saberíamos
sauriez sapreste sabríais saberíeis
sauraient saprebbero sabrían saberiam
Present Subjunctive: know(s) sache sappia sepa saiba
saches sappia sepas saibas
sache sappia sepa saiba
sachions sappiamo sepamos saibamos
sachiez sappiate sepáis saibais
sachent sappiano sepan saibam
Imperfect Subjunctive: knew susse sapessi supiera soubesse
(rare in French speech) susses sapessi supieras soubesses
(alternative Spanish below) sût sapesse supiera soubesse
  sussions sapessimo supiéramos soubéssemos
  sussiez sapeste supierais soubésseis
  sussent sapessero supieran soubessem
Future Subjunctive: will know     supiere souber
(rare in Spanish speech)     supieres souberes
(no French or Italian)     supiere souber
      supiéremos soubermos
      supiereis souberdes
      supieren souberem
Affirmative Imperative: know        
Singular familiar you sache sappi sabe sabe
Singular formal you sachez sappia sepa saiba
Let's... sachons sappiamo sepamos saibamos
Plural familiar you sachez sapete sabed sabei
Plural formal you sachez sappiano sepan saibam
Negative Imperative: don't know        
Singular familiar you ne sache pas non sapere no sepas não saibas
Singular formal you ne sachez pas non sappia no sepa não saiba
Let's not... ne sachons pas non sappiamo no sepamos não saibamos
Plural familiar you ne sachez pas non sapete no sepáis não saibais
Plural formal you ne sachez pas non sanno no sepan não saibam
Gerund: knowing savant sapendo sabiendo sabendo
Present Participle: knowing savant sapiente sabiendo sabendo
Past Participle: known su saputo sabido sabido
Auxiliary verb used in perfect tenses avoir avere haber ter


There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

supiera / supiese
supieras / supieses
supiera / supiese
supiéramos / supiésemos
supierais / supieseis
supieran / supiesen

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)


The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


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