Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Have (avoir / avere / tenir / tener / ter)

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Catalan, Spanish, and Portuguese have two verbs meaning have in English. In Catalan and Spanish, tenir and tener are used to show possession (to have, to own, to possess), while haver and haber are used as the auxiliary verb in perfect tenses to mean have/had (followed by the past participle). In Portuguese, ter means to have, own or possess and it is the preferred auxiliary verb to form the perfect tenses; however, haver can also be used as an auxiliary. Go to haver / haber / haver conjugations.

English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to have avoir avere tenir tener ter
Present: have, has ai ho tinc tengo tenho
  as hai tens tienes tens
  a ha tiene tem
  avons abbiamo tenim tenemos temos
  avez avete teniu tenéis tendes
  ont hanno tenen tienen têm
Imperfect: had/used to have avais avevo tenia tenía tinha
  avais avevi tenies tenías tinhas
  avait aveva tenia tenía tinha
  avions avevamo teníem teníamos tínhamos
  aviez avevate teníeu teníais tínheis
  avaient avevano tenien tenían tinham
Preterite: had eus ebbi tinguí tuve tive
(rare in French or Italian speech) eus avesti tingueres tuviste tiveste
(alternative Catalan below) eut ebbe tingué tuvo teve
  eûmes avemmo tinguérem tuvimos tivemos
  eûtes aveste tinguéreu tuvisteis tivestes
  eurent ebbero tingueren tuvieron tiveram
Future: will have aurai avrò tindré tendré terei
  auras avrai tindràs tendrás terás
  aura avrà tindrà tendrá terá
  aurons avremo tindrem tendremos teremos
  aurez avrete tindreu tendréis tereis
  auront avranno tindran tendrán terão
Conditional: would have aurais avrei tindria tendría teria
  aurais avresti tindries tendrías terias
  aurait avrebbe tindria tendría teria
  aurions avremmo tindríem tendríamos teríamos
  auriez avreste tindríeu tendríais teríeis
  auraient avrebbero tindrien tendrían teriam
Present Subjunctive: have, has aie abbia tingui tenga tenha
  aies abbia tinguis tengas tenhas
  ait abbia tingui tenga tenha
  ayons abbiamo tinguem tengamos tenhamos
  ayez abbiate tingueu tengáis tenhais
  aient abbiano tinguin tengan tenham
Imperfect Subjunctive: had eusse avessi tingués tuviera tivesse
(rare in French speech) eusses avessi tinguessis tuvieras tivesses
(alternative Spanish below) eût avesse tingués tuviera tivesse
  eussions avessimo tinguéssim tuviéramos tivéssemos
  eussiez aveste tinguéssiu tuvierais tivésseis
  eussent avessero tinguessin tuvieran tivessem
Affirmative Imperative: have
Singular familiar you aie abbi ten, té, tingues ten tem
Singular formal you ayez abbia tingui tenga tenha
Let's... ayons abbiamo tinguem tengamos tenhamos
Plural familiar you ayez abbiate teniu, tingueu tened tende
Plural formal you ayez abbiano tinguin tengan tenham
Negative Imperative: don't have
Singular familiar you n'aie pas non avere no tinguis no tengas não tenhas
Singular formal you n'ayez pas non abbia no tingui no tenga não tenha
Let's not... n'ayons pas non abbiamo no tinguem no tengamos não tenhamos
Plural familiar you n'ayez pas non abbiate no tingueu no tengáis não tenhais
Plural formal you n'ayez pas non abbiano no tinguin no tengan não tenham
Gerund: having
Present Participle: having
en ayant
tenint teniendo tendo
Past Participle: had eu avuto tingut tenido tido
Auxiliary verb in perfect tenses avoir avere haver haber ter


The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig tenir
vas tenir
va tenir
vam tenir
vau tenir
van tenir

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

tuviera / tuviese
tuvieras / tuvieses
tuviera / tuviese
tuviéramos / tuviésemos
tuvierais / tuvieseis
tuvieran / tuviesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
tuviere tiver
tuvieres tiveres
tuviere tiver
tuviéremos tivermos
tuviereis tiverdes
tuvieren tiverem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)



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