Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Be (être / stare / estar / estar)

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Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese have two verbs meaning be in English. Go to conjugations of essere and ser.

English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to be être stare estar estar
Present: am, is, are suis sto estoy estou
es stai estás estás
est sta está está
sommes stiamo estamos estamos
êtes state estáis estais
sont stanno están estão
Imperfect: was, were/used to étais stavo estaba estava
étais stavi estabas estavas
était stava estaba estava
étions stavamo estábamos estávamos
étiez stavate estabais estáveis
étaient stavano estaban estavam
Preterite / Simple Past : was, were fus stetti estuve estive
(rare in French or Italian speech) fus stesti estuviste estiveste
  fut stette estuvo esteve
  fûmes stemmo estuvimos estivemos
  fûtes steste estuvisteis estivestes
  furent stettero estuvieron estiveram
Future: will be serai starò estaré estarei
seras starai estarás estarás
sera starà estará estará
serons staremo estaremos estaremos
serez starete estaréis estareis
seront staranno estarán estarão
Conditional: would be serais starei estaría estaria
serais staresti estarías estarias
serait starebbe estaría estaria
serions staremmo estaríamos estaríamos
seriez stareste estaríais estaríeis
seraient starebbero estarían estariam
Present Subjunctive: am, is, are sois stia esté esteja
sois stia estés estejas
soit stia esté esteja
soyons stiamo estemos estejamos
soyez stiate estéis estejais
soient stiano estén estejam
Imperfect Subjunctive: was, were fusse stessi estuviera estivesse
(rare in French speech) fusses stessi estuvieras estivesses
(alternative Spanish below) fût stesse estuviera estivesse
  fussions stessimo estuviéramos estivéssemos
  fussiez steste estuvierais estivésseis
  fussent stessero estuvieran estivessem
Future Subjunctive: will be     estuviere estiver
(rare in Spanish speech)     estuvieres estiveres
(no French or Italian)     estuviere estiver
    estuviéremos estivermos
    estuviereis estiverdes
    estuvieren estiverem
Affirmative Imperative: be
Singular Familiar sois sta' ; stia está está
Singular Formal soyez stia esté esteja
Let's... soyons stiamo estemos estejamos
Plural familiar you soyez state estad estai
Plural formal you soyez stiano estén estejam
Negative Imperative: don't be
Singular familiar you ne sois pas non stare no estés não estejas
Singular formal you ne soyez pas non stia no esté não esteja
Let's not... ne soyons pas non stiamo no estemos não estejamos
Plural Familiar ne soyez pas non state no estéis não estejais
Plural Formal ne soyez pas non stiano no estén não estejam
Gerund: being étant stando estando estando
Present Participle: being étant stante estando estando
Past Participle: been été stato estado estado
Auxiliary verb in perfect tenses avoir essere haber ter


There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

estuviera / estuviese
estuvieras / estuvieses
estuviera / estuviese
estuviéramos / estuviésemos
estuvierais / estuvieseis
estuvieran / estuviesen

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)


The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.



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