Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Be (être / stare / estar / estar / estar)

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Catalan, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese have two verbs meaning be in English. Go to conjugations of essere and ser.

English French Italian Catalan Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to be être stare estar estar estar
Present: am, is, are suis sto estic estoy estou
es stai estàs estás estás
est sta està está está
sommes stiamo estem estamos estamos
êtes state esteu estáis estais
sont stanno estan están estão
Imperfect: was, were/used to étais stavo estava estaba estava
étais stavi estaves estabas estavas
était stava estava estaba estava
étions stavamo estàvem estábamos estávamos
étiez stavate estàveu estabais estáveis
étaient stavano estaven estaban estavam
Preterite: was, were fus stetti estiguí estuve estive
(rare in French or Italian speech) fus stesti estigueres estuviste estiveste
(alternative Catalan below) fut stette estigué estuvo esteve
  fûmes stemmo estiguérem estuvimos estivemos
  fûtes steste estiguéreu estuvisteis estivestes
  furent stettero estigueren estuvieron estiveram
Future: will be serai starò estaré estaré estarei
seras starai estaràs estarás estarás
sera starà estarà estará estará
serons staremo estarem estaremos estaremos
serez starete estareu estaréis estareis
seront staranno estaran estarán estarão
Conditional: would be serais starei estaria estaría estaria
serais staresti estaries estarías estarias
serait starebbe estaria estaría estaria
serions staremmo estaríem estaríamos estaríamos
seriez stareste estaríeu estaríais estaríeis
seraient starebbero estarien estarían estariam
Present Subjunctive: am, is, are sois stia estigui esté esteja
sois stia estiguis estés estejas
soit stia estigui esté esteja
soyons stiamo estiguem estemos estejamos
soyez stiate estigueu estéis estejais
soient stiano estiguin estén estejam
Imperfect Subjunctive: was, were fusse stessi estigués estuviera estivesse
(rare in French speech) fusses stessi estiguessis estuvieras estivesses
(alternative Spanish below) fût stesse estigués estuviera estivesse
  fussions stessimo estiguéssim estuviéramos estivéssemos
  fussiez steste estiguéssiu estuvierais estivésseis
  fussent stessero estiguessin estuvieran estivessem
Affirmative Imperative: be
Singular Familiar sois sta' ; stia estigues está está
Singular Formal soyez stia estigui esté esteja
Let's... soyons stiamo estiguem estemos estejamos
Plural familiar you soyez state estigueu estad estai
Plural formal you soyez stiano estiguin estén estejam
Negative Imperative: don't be
Singular familiar you ne sois pas non stare no estiguis no estés não estejas
Singular formal you ne soyez pas non stia no estigui no esté não esteja
Let's not... ne soyons pas non stiamo no estiguem no estemos não estejamos
Plural Familiar ne soyez pas non state no estigueu no estéis não estejais
Plural Formal ne soyez pas non stiano no estiguin no estén não estejam
Gerund: being
Present Participle: being
en étant
estant estando estando
Past Participle: been été stato estat estado estado
Auxiliary verb in perfect tenses avoir essere haver haber ter


The periphrastic past in Catalan is an alternative to the preterite. It is formed by using anar as an auxiliary verb followed by the infinitive.

vaig estar
vas estar
va estar
vam estar
vau estar
van estar

There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

estuviera / estuviese
estuvieras / estuvieses
estuviera / estuviese
estuviéramos / estuviésemos
estuvierais / estuvieseis
estuvieran / estuviesen

The future subjunctive is only used in formal or literary Spanish, but it is easy to conjugate since it is nearly identical to the imperfect subjunctive forms. The future subjunctive in Portuguese is very common and the same endings are used for the personal infinitive (see below).

Spanish Portuguese
estuviere estiver
estuvieres estiveres
estuviere estiver
estuviéremos estivermos
estuviereis estiverdes
estuvieren estiverem

The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.


There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)



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