Learn Romance Languages Verb Conjuations Together - French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Vocabulary Side-by-Side

Romance Languages Verbs: Conjugations of Be (être / essere / ser / ser)

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Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese have two verbs meaning be in English. Go to conjugations of stare and estar.

English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Infinitive: to be être essere ser ser
Present: am, is, are suis sono soy sou
es sei eres és
est è es é
sommes siamo somos somos
êtes siete sois sois
sont sono son são
Imperfect: was, were / used to be étais ero era era
étais eri eras eras
était era era era
étions eravamo éramos éramos
étiez eravate erais éreis
étaient erano eran eram
Preterite / Simple Past: was, were fus fui fui fui
(rare in French or Italian speech) fus fosti fuiste foste
  fut fu fue foi
  fûmes fummo fuimos fomos
  fûtes foste fuisteis fostes
  furent furono fueron foram
Future: will be serai sarò seré serei
seras sarai serás serás
sera sarà será será
serons saremo seremos seremos
serez sarete seréis sereis
seront saranno serán serão
Conditional: would be serais sarei sería seria
serais saresti serías serias
serait sarebbe sería seria
serions saremmo seríamos seríamos
seriez sareste serías seríeis
seraient sarebbero serían seriam
Present Subjunctive: am, is, are sois sia sea seja
sois sia seas sejas
soit sia sea seja
soyons siamo seamos sejamos
soyez siate seáis sejais
soient siano sean sejam
Imperfect Subjunctive: was, were fusse fossi fuera fosse
(rare in French speech) fusses fossi fueras fosses
(alternative Spanish below) fût fosse fuera fosse
  fussions fossimo fuéramos fôssemos
  fussiez foste fuerais fôsseis
  fussent fossero fueran fossem
Future Subjunctive: will be     fuere for
(rare in Spanish speech)     fueres fores
(no French or Italian)     fuere for
    fuéremos formos
    fuereis fordes
    fueren forem
Affirmative Imperative: be
Singular Familiar sois sii
Singular Formal soyez sia sea seja
Let's... soyons siamo seamos sejamos
Plural familiar you soyez siate sed sede
Plural formal you soyez siano sean sejam
Negative Imperative: don't be
Singular familiar you ne sois pas non essere no seas não sejas
Singular formal you ne soyez pas non sia no sea não seja
Let's not... ne soyons pas non siamo no seamos não sejamos
Plural Familiar ne soyez pas non siate no seáis não sejais
Plural Formal ne soyez pas non siano no sean não sejam
Gerund: being étant essendo siendo sendo
Present Participle: being étant essente siendo sendo
Past Participle: been été stato sido sido
Auxiliary verb in perfect tenses avoir essere haber ter


There is an alternative form of the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, which is more similar to Portuguese. Simply replace -ra- with -se- for all conjugations:

fuera / fuese
fueras / fueses
fuera / fuese
fuéramos / fuésemos
fuerais / fueseis
fueran / fuesen

There is an alternative form of the past perfect in Portugueuse which only uses one word rather than an auxiliary verb + past participle. These conjugations are quite similar to the imperfect subjunctive conjugations using -ra- in Spanish. However, this simple form is only used in formal or literary Portuguese. (Note that the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish using -ra- can also be used in formal or literary language as an alternative to the compound past perfect.)


The personal infinitive in Portuguese uses the infinitive as the stem + the endings of the future subjunctive.



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