Romance Languages Vocabulary Lists: Personal Pronouns

     


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English French Italian Spanish Portuguese
Subject Pronouns
I je io yo eu
you (singular, informal) tu tu tú / vos tu
you (singular, formal) vous Lei (Ella) usted você / o senhor / a senhora
he / it (masculine) il lui (egli / esso) él êle
she / it (feminine) elle lei (ella / essa) ella ela
we nous noi nosotros nós
you (plural, informal) vous voi vosotros vós
you (plural, formal) vous Loro ustedes vocês / os senhores / as senhoras
they (masculine) ils loro (essi) ellos êles
they (feminine) elles loro (esse) ellas elas
Direct Object Pronouns
me me mi me me
you (singular, informal) te ti te te
you (singular, formal) vous la lo / la o / a
him / it (masculine) le lo lo o
her / it (feminine) la la la a
us nous ci nos nos
you (plural, informal) vous vi os vos
you (plural, formal) vous le los / las os / as
them (masculine) les li los os
them (feminine) les li las as
InDirect Object Pronouns
me me mi me me
you (singular, informal) te ti te te
you (singular, formal) vous le le lhe
him / it (masculine) lui gli le lhe
her / it (feminine) lui le le lhe
us nous ci nos nos
you (plural, informal) vous vi os vos
you (plural, formal) vous Loro les lhes
them (masc. & fem.) leur loro les lhes
Stressed Pronouns / Object of prepositions
me moi me mim
you (singular, informal) toi te ti
you (singular, formal) vous Lei usted você / o senhor / a senhora
him / it (masculine) lui lui (esso) él êle
her / it (feminine) elle lei (essa) ella ela
us nous noi nosotros nos
you (plural, informal) vous voi vosotros vos
you (plural, formal) vous Loro ustedes vocês / os senhores / as senhoras
them (masculine) eux loro (essi) ellos êles
them (feminine) elles loro (esse) ellas elas
Reflexive Pronouns
myself me mi me me
yourself (singular, informal) te ti te te
yourself (singular, formal) vous si se se
himself / herself / itself se si se se
ourselves nous ci nos nos
yourselves (plural, informal) vous vi os vos
yourselves (plural, formal) vous vi se se
themselves (masc. & fem.) se si se se

 

 

  1. The subject pronouns are required with verbs in French since many conjugations are pronounced the same, but they are not required in Italian, Spanish or European Portuguese.

  2. The singular formal you in French (vous) takes the plural conjugation identical to the plural you form, whereas in Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, singular formal you uses the singular conjugation identical to the he / she / it form and plural formal you uses the plural conjugation indentical to the they form.

  3. French often uses the subject pronoun on in place of nous to mean we, they, the people, etc. The corresponding stressed pronoun is soi.

  4. Italian egli and ella can only refer to people and esso / essa / essi / esse can only refer to things. These forms (in parentheses in the table above) are mostly considered literary or antiquated and are being replaced by lui, lei, and loro in modern Italian.

  5. Another singular informal you in Spanish (vos instead of ) is used in several Latin America countries, but not in Spain. See the article on voseo at Wikipedia for more information on where it is used.

  6. The plural informal you in Spanish (vosotros) is used in most parts of Spain, but not in Latin America, where it is replaced by ustedes.

  7. There is another stressed pronoun in Spanish (ello), and it corresponds to the neuter definite article lo, which changes an adjective into a noun. For example, lo útil - what is useful.

  8. Most dialects of Brazilian Portuguese do not use tu or vós as subject pronouns, but instead just use the third person pronouns and conjugations (você and vocês for singular and plural informal and o senhor / a senhora and os senhores / as senhoras for singular and plural formal). European Portuguese can drop subject pronouns since the second or third person conjugation will indicate whether you is formal or informal, but Brazilian Portuguese must keep the pronoun since both formalities are conjugated in the third person. Tu can be used informally in some parts of Brazil (with the verb conjugated in the third person in colloquial speech), though the informal plural is always vocês.

  9. In both Spanish and Portuguese, the direct object pronouns for you (singular, formal) and you (plural, formal) are also divided into masculine and feminine. They are identical to the third person forms.

 


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