Verbs that use essere in Italian present perfect tense


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Essere Verbs

In general, intransitive and reflexive verbs, as well as impersonal verbs and verbs describing a change of state or an evolution of some sorts, take essere as the auxiliary verb in the passato prossimo. These past participles must agree with the subject in gender and number by changing the final vowel.  Irregular past participles are highlighted below.

to go  andare andato
to arrive   arrivare arrivato
to suffice, be enough bastare bastato
to be necessary bisognare bisognato
to cost  costare costato
to depend dipendere dipeso
to regret, upset dispiacere dispiaciuto
to become, grow, turn diventare diventato
to last durare durato
to enter  entrare entrato
to exist esistere esistito
to be  essere stato
to arrive / to succeed giungere giunto
to get old invecchiare invecchiato
to die morire morto
to be born nascere nato
to be necessary occorrere occorso
to leave  partire partito
to be pleasing [to like] piacere piaciuto
to rain piovere piovuto
to stay, remain restare restato
to go/come back in, return rientrare rientrato
to remain, stay rimanere rimasto
to return ritornare ritornato
to succeed riuscire (a) riuscito
to seem sembrare sembrato
to serve, be of use servire servito
to disappear  sparire sparito
to stay, be  stare stato
to happen succedere successo
to come back/return  tornare tornato
to go out  uscire uscito
to be worth valere valso
to come venire venuto

Sono nato a Torino nel 1965. I was born in Turin in 1965.
Cosa è successo? What happened?
Lei è stato malata ma niente di grave. She was sick, but it was nothing serious.

There are also a few verbs (some with irregular past participles) that use essere as an auxiliary when they are intransitive (no direct object), but avere when they are transitive (with a direct object).

to change, exchange cambiare cambiato
to begin, start cominciare cominciato
to run correre corso
to grow (up), increase crescere cresciuto
to diminish, decrease diminuire diminuito
to explode esplodere esploso
to finish, end, stop finire finito
to ripen, mature maturare maturato
to improve migliorare migliorato
to move muovere mosso
to pass, pass through/over passare passato
to worsen peggiorare peggiorato
to go up, rise salire salito
to descend, go down scendere sceso
to live (be alive) vivere vissuto

L'inverno è finito. Winter is finished.
Abbiamo finito di guardare il film. We finished watching the film.

 

Sample Essere Verb: andare - to go

sono andato / sono andata siamo andati / siamo andate
sei andato / sei andata siete andati / siete andate
è andato / è andata sono andati / sono andate

Sono andato can mean I went, I was going, or I did go.  Remember that -o is masculine and -a is feminine.  The -i ending indicates all males or males and females; whereas the -e ending indicates only females.




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