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|Spelling||IPA||Approximate English pronunciation|
|ai||/aj/||similar to diphthong in eye or high|
|ce, ci, cy||/s/||as in soon|
|ca, co, ca||/k/||as in kite|
|ch||/ʃ/ /k/ /x/||as in shut, kite, or guttural Bach (mostly in loan words)|
|ë||/ə/||schwa sound, as in sofa|
|ee||/iə/||ee and uh together|
|ei||/ɛi/||short eh and ih together; similar to play but shorter|
|eu||/eø/||long eh and ih together, but with lips rounded for ih|
|gh||/g/||as in go|
|h||/h/||slightly softer; may sound like y as in yes before e|
|i, ie||/i/||as in eat|
|j||/j/||as in yes|
|oe||/u/||as in boot|
|oei||/ui/||oo and ee together|
|oo||/uə/||oo and uh together|
|ou||/ɵu/||similar to oh|
|q||/k/||as in kite|
|r||/r/||rolled / trilled r|
|sj||/ʃ/||as in shut|
|tj||/tʃ/ /k/||as in chat; but also kite in the ending -tjie|
|u||/œ/||long eh with rounded lips|
|ui||/œy/||ay like bait|
|uu||/y/||ee but with rounded lips|
|v||/f/||as in fine|
|w||/v/||as in vase|
|x||/ks/||as in box|
|y||/ɛi/||short eh and ih together; similar to play but shorter|
At the end of word, the /d/ and /b/ sounds become /t/ and /p/.
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