German V Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar
     


81. Showing Purpose

Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action; however, damit and um…zu (so that, in order to) show the goal of an action. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause, whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive.

Sie macht das Fenster zu, damit sie nicht friert. = Sie macht das Fenster zu, um nicht zu frieren.
She closes the window, so that she won't freeze . = She closes the window, in order to not freeze.

Commonly, you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause, and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause.


82. Shopping

box die Schachtel
VCR der Videorecorder
camera die Kamera
video camera die Videokamera
film der Film
wristwatch die Armbanduhr
handkerchief das Taschentuch
perfume das Parfüm
wallet der Geldbeutel, die Geldbörse
radio das Radio
razor das Rasiermesser
size die Größe
department (in store) die Abteilung
greeting card die Glückwunschkarte


83. Post Office and Bank

letter der Brief teller der Kassierer (in)
postcard die Postkarte bill der Schein
stamp die Briefmarke check der Scheck
phone booth die Telefonzelle checkbook das Scheckbuch
mailbox der Briefkasten ATM der Geldautomat
mail slot der Briefeinwurf key die Schlüssel
address die Adresse lock das Schloß
sender/return address der Absender filing cabinet der Aktenschrank
label das Etikett safety deposit box das Bankschließfach
packing tape das Paketklebeband notepad der Notizblock
package das Paket credit card die Kreditkarte
postmark der Poststempel security camera die Überwachungsanlage
rubber band das Gummiband security guard die Wache
ink pad das Stempelkissen drive-thru window der Autoschalter
string die Schnur safe der Tresor


84. Zu with Infinitives

Infinitives are usually preceded by zu (except when modals are used) when they act as complements of verbs, adjectives or nouns.  Zu + infinitive is always the last element in a sentence. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive, the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem.

Hast du Lust, den Dom zu besichtigen?  Do you feel like visiting the cathedral?
Es dauert lange, durch die Stadt zu fahren.  It takes a long time to drive through the city.
Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen.  It is too early to get up.

Um, ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well.  They introduce infinitival clauses.  Um.. zu is used to indicate purpose, while ohne...zu and anstatt...zu are used with infinitives, and translated as present participles in English.  (Um...zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly.)

Er kam, um das Buch abzuholen.  He came in order to pick up the book.
Sie sagte es, ohne mich anzusehen.  She said it, without looking at me.
Statt hier zu sitzen, sollten wir ihn suchen.  Instead of sitting here, we should look for him.

Sein + zu + an infinitive is used the same way in English and German, but the construction is far more common in German.

Das ist nicht zu machen.  That can't be done.
Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden.  That can be found in any store.

The verbs brauchen (to need) and scheinen (to seem, appear) are often used with zu + an infinitive. Brauchen in the negative is usually translated as to not have to, and is the opposite of müssen.

Es scheint kaputt zu sein. It seems to be broken.
Ich brauche heute nicht zu arbeiten. I don't have to work today.


85. Office & School Supplies

compact disc die Compact Disc calculator der Taschenrechner
floppy disk die Diskette eraser der Radiergummi
document das Dokument notebook das Heft
computer der Computer folder das Prospekt
monitor der Monitor colored pencil der Buntstift
keyboard die Tastatur ruler das Lineal
mouse die Maus pencil sharpener der Anspitzer (or Spitzer)
printer der Drucker pencil der Bleistift
memo die Mitteilung pen der Kuli
paper das Papier scissors die Schere
photocopier das Fotokopierer glue der Klebstoff
typewriter die Schreibmaschine binder der Ordner
software die Software chalk die Kreide
file / computer file die Akten / die Datei chalkboard die Tafel
cabinet der Schrank backpack der Rucksack
briefcase die Aktentasche stapler die Heftmaschine


86. Expressions of Time

The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used.

Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause.  Last Sunday I stayed home.
Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland.  She's going to Germany next week.
Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht.  He visited us last year.

Time expressions with the prepositions an, in and vor are in the dative case.

Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück.  We must return on Sunday.
In der Nacht wird es kalt.  It gets cold at night.
Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt.  Three years ago it was just as cold here.

The genitive case is used to express indefinite time, and may refer to the future or past.

Eines Tages war er krank.  One day he was sick.
Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen.  One morning he'll be late.


87. Travelling / Airport

Customs Office das Zollamt
Airline Office das Büro der Fluglinie
Travel Agency das Reisebüro
Information Office das Auskunftsbüro
Train Station der Bahnhof (ö, e)
departure die Abfahrt (en)
arrival die Ankunft (ü, e)
flight tickets die Flugkarten
baggage das Gepäck
bag die Tasche (-n)
suitcase der Koffer (-)
passport der Pass (ä, e)
left links
right rechts
next (to) neben
near bei
straight ahead geradeaus
along the (noun) (acc. noun +) entlang
over the (noun) über (+ acc. noun)
past the (noun) an (noun) vorbei
up to, as far as the (noun) bis zu (noun)
across from the (noun) gegenüber von (noun)


88. Another

Ein(e) ander- and noch ein- both mean another, but they cannot be used interchangeably.  Ein(e) ander- means a different one, and ander- takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words.  Noch ein means one more.

Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen?  Should we come again at another (a different) time?

Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen?  Would you like to look at another (one more) room?


89. Cosmetics & Toiletries

toothbrush die Zahnbürste hair spray der Haarfestiger
toothpaste die Zahnpasta hair dryer der Fön
dental floss die Zahnseide nail polish der Nagellack
hair brush die Bürste mascara die Wimperntusche
comb der Kamm lipstick der Lippenstift
shampoo das Shampoo powder der Puder
curling iron der Lockenstab soap die Seife
shaving cream die Rasiercreme makeup die Schminke
razor das Rasiermesser perfume das Parfüm
mousse der Schaum cologne das Kölnisch Wasser


90. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive (Conditional)

This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact, instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood.  There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.  Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if...then (wenn... dann) statements and conditional sentences.  Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. (If you study other languages with a subjunctive mood, please don't confuse it with the German subjunctive. They are not the same!)

The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the simple past / imperfect tense of the indicative.  For weak (regular) verbs, the subjunctive II is the same as the simple past tense.  For strong (irregular) verbs, the present tense of the subjunctive II uses the stem of the simple past, adds an umlaut where possible, and then adds the following endings:

-e
-est
-e
-en
-et
-en

 

Strong verbs in the subjunctive II

gehen fahren fliegen
ginge
gingest
ginge
gingen
ginget
gingen
führe
führest
führe
führen
führet
führen
flöge
flögest
flöge
flögen
flöget
flögen

Sein, haben and werden in the subjunctive II

sein haben werden
wäre
wärest
wäre
wären
wäret
wären
hätte
hättest
hätte
hätten
hättet
hätten
würde
würdest
würde
würden
würdet
würden

Some exceptions include the mixed verbs, modals and wissen which use the same endings as the simple past:

Imperfekt Subjunctive II
brachte
dachte
durfte
konnte
mochte
sollte
wollte
mußte
wußte
brächte
dächte
dürfte
könnte
möchte
sollte
wollte
müßte
wüßte

 

The past tense of Subjunctive II is simply the subjunctive II of sein or haben (whichever auxiliary the verb takes in the indicative) and a past participle. The future tense of Subjunctive II is the subjunctive II of werden and an infinitive.

Conditional sentences
These sentences are based on an if... then (wenn... dann) pattern in both English and German.  Dann can be omitted in these sentences also.  Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction, and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause.

Present Subj. II:  Wenn ich Zeit hätte, (dann) ginge ich ins Kino.  If I had time, (then) I would go to the movies.
Past Subj. II:  Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte, dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen.  If I had had time, (then) I would have gone to the movies.

Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb, and in this case, wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so:

Kommt er heute nicht, (so) kommt er morgen.  If he's not coming today, then he'll come tomorrow.

A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well; but in this case, dann is not actually used and the clause uses normal word order:

Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht, wenn er zu heiß ist.  We don't drink coffee if it is too hot.

Forms of würden + an infinitive
Würde and an infinitive translates to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause.  Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction, except with these eight verbs: helfen, stehen, sterben, werfen, brennen, kennen, nennen, and rennen.  These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic.  Moreover, conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction.  However, this construction is generally not used with the modal auxiliaries, wissen, haben or sein.

Wenn ich Zeit hätte, dann ginge ich ins Kino.
dann würde ich ins Kino gehen.
If I had time, I would go to the movies.
Wenn ich Geld hätte, dann flöge ich nach Deutschland.
dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen.
If I had money, I would fly to Germany.


91. Other uses of Subjunctive II

1. Being Polite
To be more polite, use the subjunctive II form of the modals.

Subjunctive II forms of modals
können müssen dürfen sollen wollen mögen
ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte möchte
du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest möchtest
er, sie, es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte möchte
wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten
ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet möchtet
sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten

Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me?
Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone?

In modern German, the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. Was willst du?  = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like?

Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas, bitte. = We would like two colas, please.

Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs, sein, haben and werden.  For this reason, you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir?

2. Expressing Wishes
The subjunctive II is also used to express wishes. These phrases generally begin with "I wish" or "If only" in English. Wenn (if) can be omitted from these statements, but then you must move the conjugated verb in the subjunctive II to the place of wenn at the beginning of the phrase. When expressing wishes, the present and past tenses of the subjunctive II can be used.

Wenn ich nur noch jung wäre! = Wäre ich nur noch jung! I wish I were still young! / If only I were still young!
Wenn er nur früher gekommen wäre! = Wäre er nur früher gekommen! If only he had come earlier!
Wenn sie doch mehr Zeit gehabt hätten! = Hätten sie doch mehr Zeit gehabt! If only they had had more time!

Ich wünschte and ich wollte (I wish) are fixed expressions followed by the subjunctive II or würde + infinitive. Another expression always followed by the subjunctive is an deiner Stelle (in your place / If I were you) when giving advice.


92. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive (Indirect Discourse)

The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal, impartial way.  The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact, while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements.)  These three distinctions are quite subtle, although they are important.  In everyday conversation, the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II.

The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb.  Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts (a does not become ä, e does not become ie, etc.)

-e
-est
-e
-en
-et
-en

 

Haben, werden and wissen in the subjunctive I

haben werden wissen
habe
habest
habe
haben
habet
haben
werde
werdest
werde

werden
werdet
werden

wisse
wissest
wisse
wissen
wisset
wissen

 

Notice that sein has no endings in the ich and er forms:

sei
seiest
sei
seien
seiet
seien

 

The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative.  It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. The future tense of Subjunctive I is simply the subjunctive I form of werden and an infinitive.

Tenses
The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it.  If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative, then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I.  If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative (simple past, present perfect, or past perfect), then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I.  Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time, as compared to the three tenses of the indicative.  If the direct quotation is in the future tense, then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II, then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II.

Tense in direct quotation Tense in indirect quotation
present indicative present subjunctive I
simple past, present perfect, past perfect indicative past subjunctive I
future indicative future subjunctive I
subjunctive II subjunctive II

In certain cases, the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical, so the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. Overall, you can use subjunctive I solely for the third person singular form, and use subjunctive II forms for all other persons.


93. Parts of a Car

brake die Bremse (n) wheel das Rad (ä, er)
horn die Hupe (n) car der Wagen (-) / der PKW
hood die Motorhaube (n) traffic light die Ampel (n)
flat tire die Reifenpanne (n) highway die Autobahn (en)
gear der Gang (ä, e) intersection die Kreuzung (en)
trunk der Kofferraum (ä, e) (one-way) street die (Einbahn)straße (n)
tire der Reifen (-) pedestrian der Fussgänger (-)
windshield wiper der Scheibenwischer (-) sidewalk der Fussgängerweg (e)
seat belt der Sicherheitsgurt (e) traffic jam der Stau (s)
seat der Sitz (e) ticket der Strafzettel (-)
steering wheel das Lenkrad (ä, er) (traffic) sign das (Verkehrs)schild (er)
parking space die Parklücke (n) license plate das Nummernschild (er)

 

Der PKW is short for der Personenkraftwagen. Der LKW is also commonly used to mean truck. It is short for der Lastkraftwagen.


94. Present Participle

To form the present participle, simply add -d to the infinitive.  It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings.  It can also function as an adverb, but then of course, it does not add any endings.

kochendes Wasser - boiling water
die führenden Kritiker -  the leading critics
im kommenden Sommer - in the coming summer

Sie spricht fließend Deutsch. She speaks German fluently.


95. In the Ocean

scuba diver

wet suit

flipper

oxygen tank

snorkel

mask

starfish

jellyfish

sea urchin

sea horse

seaweed

fishing line

fish hook

der Taucher

der Wasseranzug

die Schwimmflosse

der Lufttank

der Schnorchel

die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask)

der Seestern

die Qualle

der Seeigel

das Seepferdchen

der Seetang

die Angelschnur

der Angelhaken

shipwreck

helm

anchor

treasure chest

barnacle

coral

seashell

wave

sand

bubble

clam

crab

der Schiffbruch

der Helm

der Anker

die Schatzkiste

die Entenmuschel

die Koralle

die Muschel

die Welle

der Sand

die Blase

die Muschel

die Krabbe


96. Als ob / Als wenn

The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable; they both mean "as if" or "as though."  Both introduce a dependent clause, so the conjugated verb must go to the end.  In addition, both require the subjunctive II.

Als ob ich das nicht wüßte!  As if I didn't know that!
Er tut, als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte.  He acts as though he had nothing better to do.


97. In Space

astronaut

space shuttle

control panel

satellite

spaceship

alien

asteroid

space suit

lunar rover

landing capsule

space station

solar panel

meteor shower

constellation

solar system

der Astronaut

die Raumfähre

die Kontrolltafel

der Satellit

das Raumschiff

der Ausserirdische

der Asteroid

der Raumanzug

das Mondfahrzeug

das Landungsgerät

die Raumstation

die Sonnenzellen

der Meteorschwarm

das Sternbild

das Sonnensystem

beaker

test tube

galaxy

Earth

moon

sun

planet

rings

crater

stars

comet

rocket

robot

nebula

laboratory

das Becherglas

das Reagenzglas

die Milchstraße

die Erde

der Mond

die Sonne

der Planet

die Höfe

der Krater

die Sterne

der Komet

die Rakete

der Roboter

der Nebelfleck

das Labor


98. Future Perfect

The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses.  It is formed with the future of haben or sein, and the past participle.  The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it), or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him.)  The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though.

Er wird gegangen sein.  He will have gone.
Ich werde es genommen haben.  I will have taken it.
Es wird dunkel geworden sein.  It will have become dark.
Das wird Rudi gewesen sein.  That will have been Rudi. / That was probably Rudi.

When using modals, the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction, so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end.

Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen.


99. Fantasy & Make-Believe

dragon

fairy

elf

giant

tower

knight

squire

court jester

minstrel

armor

dungeon

moat

castle

der Drache

die Fee

der Elf / die Elfe

der Riese

der Turm

der Ritter

der Edelknabe

der Hofnarr

der Minnesänger

die Rüstung

der Kerker

der Burggraben

das Schloß

unicorn

shield

sword

lance

ax

drawbridge

crown

king

queen

princess

prince

throne

das Einhorn

der Schild

das Schwert

die Lanze

die Axt

die Zugbrücke

die Krone

der König

die Königin

die Prinzessin

der Prinz

der Thron


100. Spelling Reform

Recently, there has been a spelling reform of the German language. The following are a few points that have changed:

1. Write ss after a short vowel, and ß after a long vowel or diphthong.  Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway.  Also, there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß, so it must be written as SS.

2. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch, Mittag, Abend, Morgen, Recht haben, Leid tun…

3. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters.

4. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und.


Review of Declensions of Nouns


1)  Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases.

Singular: Typewriter Street
Nom. die Schreibmaschine die Straße
Acc. die Schreibmaschine die Straße
Dat. der Schreibmaschine der Straße
Gen. der Schreibmaschine der Straße


2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular.

Singular: Shoe Shirt
Nom. der Schuh das Hemd
Acc. den Schuh das Hemd
Dat. dem Schuh dem Hemd
Gen. des Schuhes des Hemdes

Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German.

3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Sing. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases.

Lion(s)
Singular Plural
Nom. der Löwe die Löwen
Acc. den Löwen die Löwen
Dat. dem Löwen den Löwen
Gen. des Löwen der Löwen


4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en.

Man Woman Child
Nom. Sing. der Mann die Frau das Kind
Dat. Pl. den Männern den Frauen den Kindern


5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders, the Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative Plural are the same.

Forest Pear
Nom. Sing. der Wald die Birne
Nom. Pl. die Wälder die Birnen
Acc. Pl. die Wälder die Birnen
Dat. Pl. den Wäldern den Birnen
Gen. Pl. der Wälder der Birnen

To form the Dative Plural, add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural, unless it already ends in -s or -n, then add nothing.

Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above, but plural nouns are more complex and irregular.  Some may add -n, -en, -r, -er, -e, or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e, and some nouns do not change from singular to plural.

Group 1
-Singular follows rules
-Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives

Father(s) (masc.)
Sing. Plural
Nom. der Vater die Väter
Acc. den Vater die Väter
Dat. dem Vater den Vätern
Gen. des Vaters der Väter

Nouns belonging to this group:  Most nouns whose Nom. Sing. end in -el, -en, -er; and neuter nouns that begin with Ge- and end with -e

Group 2
-Singular follows rules
-Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -en to Dative

Fruit (fem.)
Sing. Plural
Nom. die Frucht die Früchte
Acc. die Frucht die Früchte
Dat. der Frucht den Früchten
Gen. der Frucht der Früchte

Nouns belonging to this group:  Masculine that are one syllable; half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable

Group 3
-Singular follow rules
-Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -ern to Dative

Man/men (masc.)
Sing. Plural
Nom. der Mann die Männer
Acc. den Mann die Männer
Dat. dem Mann den Männern
Gen. des Mannes der Männer

Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable; no feminine nouns

Group 4
-Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative, Accusative, and Genitive; Feminine follows rule
-Plural adds -n or -en to all forms

Student (s) Woman/Women
Sing. Plural Sing. Plural
Nom. der Student die Studenten die Frau die Frauen 
Acc. den Studenten die Studenten die Frau die Frauen
Dat. dem Studenten den Studenten der Frau den Frauen
Gen. des Studenten der Studenten der Frau der Frauen

Nouns belonging to this group:  Most feminine that are more than one syllable, most masculine that denote living things; no neuter nouns

Group 5
-Add -s to Genitive Singular
-Add -s to all plural forms

Auto(s) (neu.)
Sing. Plural
Nom. das Auto die Autos
Acc. das Auto die Autos
Dat. dem Auto den Autos
Gen. des Autos der Autos

Nouns belonging to this group:  Foreign origin words, such as das Radio, das Restaurant, and das Hotel.

Group 6 - Irregular
-Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular
-Add -en to Dative Singular, may add -en to Accusative Singular
-All plural add -en

Heart(s) Name(s)
Sing. Plural Sing. Plural
Nom. das Herz die Herzen der Name die Namen
Acc. das Herz die Herzen den Namen die Namen
Dat. dem Herzen den Herzen dem Namen den Namen
Gen. des Herzens der Herzen des Namens der Namen


Group 7 - Mixed
-Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular
-Add -n or -en for all plural

Bed(s) (neu.)
Sing. Plural
Nom. das Bett die Betten
Acc. das Bett die Betten
Dat. dem Bett den Betten
Gen. des Bettes der Betten


German States / BundeslAnder

German States English Translation
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg
Berlin Berlin
Brandenburg Brandenburg
Bremen Bremen
Hamburg Hamburg
Bayern Bavaria
Sachsen Saxony
Thüringen Thuringia
Hessen Hesse
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
Niedersachsen Lower Saxony
Nordrhein-Westfalen North Rhine-Westphalia
Rheinland-Pfalz Rhineland-Palatinate
Saarland Saarland
Sachsen-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein

Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg are cities as well as states.


Austrian States / BundeslAnder

Austrian States English Translation
Burgenland Burgenland
Kämten Carinthia
Niederösterreich Lower Austria
Oberösterreich Upper Austria
Salzburg Salzburg
Steiermark Styria
Tirol Tyrol
Vorarlberg Vorarlberg
Wien Vienna

 


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